Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Study design materials and methods
  • Section S2. Primary analysis: Robustness and reliability of results
  • Section S3. Secondary analysis: A Bayesian approach
  • Section S4. Possible explanations for the null findings
  • Section S5. Effects of publicly disseminated information
  • Table S1. Individual study designs.
  • Table S2. Descriptive statistics for sample of good news.
  • Table S3. Descriptive statistics for sample of bad news.
  • Table S4. Balance of covariates.
  • Table S5. Effect of information, conditional on distance between information and priors, on vote choice, and turnout.
  • Table S6. Deviations from MPAP and study PAPs in the meta-analysis.
  • Table S7. Differential attrition.
  • Table S8. Manipulation check: Effect of treatment on correct recollection, pooling good and bad news (unregistered analysis).
  • Table S9. Manipulation check: Absolute difference between posterior and prior beliefs for pooled good and bad news (unregistered analysis).
  • Table S10. Effect of information on perception of importance of politician effort and honesty.
  • Table S11. Effect of information and source credibility on evaluation of politician effort and honesty (unregistered analysis).
  • Table S12. Relationship between evaluation of politician effort and honesty with vote choice (unregistered analysis).
  • Table S13. Effect of bad news on politician backlash.
  • Table S14. Additional hypotheses and results.
  • Table S15. Effect of moderators on incumbent vote choice.
  • Table S16. Effect of information and context heterogeneity on incumbent vote choice.
  • Table S17. Effect of information and electoral competition on vote choice.
  • Table S18. Effect of information and intervention-specific heterogeneity on vote choice.
  • Table S19. Interaction analysis: Effect of good news on incumbent vote choice.
  • Table S20. Interaction analysis: Effect of bad news on incumbent vote choice.
  • Table S21. Private versus public information: Effect of good news on incumbent vote choice.
  • Table S22. Private versus public information: Effect of bad news on incumbent vote choice.
  • Fig. S1. Benin—Graphical representation of provided information.
  • Fig. S2. Brazil—Flyers distributed to voters.
  • Fig. S3. Burkina Faso—Flashcard illustrations of municipal performance indicators.
  • Fig. S4. Mexico—Example of benchmarked leaflet in Ecatepec de Morelos, México.
  • Fig. S5. Uganda 1—Candidate answering questions during a recording session and candidate as seen in video.
  • Fig. S6. Power analysis of minimal detectable effects, computed using Monte Carlo simulation.
  • Fig. S7. Bayesian meta-analysis: Vote choice.
  • Fig. S8. Bayesian meta-analysis: Turnout.

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