Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text S1. Description of individuals excavated in Ashkelon and archeological information
  • Fig. S1. Pairwise mismatch rate.
  • Fig. S2. PCA plot of present-day west Eurasian populations.
  • Fig. S3. ADMIXTURE CV errors for each cluster number (K).
  • Fig. S4. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population shares a higher genetic affinity with Caucasus/Iranian-related populations when compared to the Neolithic Levantines.
  • Fig. S5. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population shares a marginal higher genetic affinity with populations related to ancient Caucasus/Iran when compared to Chalcolithic Levantines.
  • Fig. S6. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population is symmetrically related to Lebanon_MBA.
  • Fig. S7. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population is mostly symmetrically related to Jordan_EBA but shares a slightly higher genetic affinity with populations related to ancient Caucasus/Iran.
  • Fig. S8. Variation in differential affinities between the Ashkelon groups.
  • Fig. S9. The proportion of Mesolithic European WHG ancestry in ASH_IA1 individuals correlates with their position in the west Eurasian PCA.
  • Fig. S10. ASH_IA1 shares more alleles with European-related populations compared to ASH_IA2.
  • Fig. S11. ASH_IA2 is symmetrically related to ASH_LBA.
  • Fig. S12. Map of the Bronze Age necropolis.
  • Fig. S13. Relative stratigraphy of grid 38.
  • Fig. S14. Relative stratigraphy of N5. Square 14.
  • Fig. S15. Relative stratigraphy of N5. Square 24.
  • Table S1. 14C radiocarbon dating performed for this study.
  • Table S2. Nuclear and mitochondrial contamination estimates.
  • Table S3. qpADM admixture models of the ASH_LBA group.
  • Table S4. Fligner-Killeen test based on f4 (Ashkelon ind 1, Ashkelon ind 2; test, Mbuti)2 statistics.
  • Table S5. Ashkelon individuals and groups modeled using qpADM by “Levant_ChL,” “Iran_ChL,” and WHG as sources.
  • Table S6. Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals and groups modeled by the three maximized populations on the west Eurasian PCA (using qpADM).
  • Table S7. qpADM admixture models of the ASH_IA1 group.
  • Table S8. qpADM admixture models of the ASH_IA2 group.
  • Table S9. Phenotypic analysis.
  • Table S10. Archeological context.
  • References (2866)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). An overview of skeletal material screened for aDNA in this study.
  • Data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). An overview of the main analysis groups used in this study.
  • Data file S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Sequencing statistics of negative controls.

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