Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Material characteristics.
  • Fig. S2. Experimental verification of tilting angles.
  • Fig. S3. Two-axis tilting panels.
  • Fig. S4. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the elastic material family used in the soft torsional hinges.
  • Fig. S5. Large-amplitude bandwidth measurements.
  • Fig. S6. Actuator long-term cycling.
  • Fig. S7. Experimental setup for dynamic actuation.
  • Fig. S8. 3D-printed water lily design.
  • Fig. S9. Spike actuator arrays design.
  • Fig. S10. Dot gain images.
  • Fig. S11. Topology optimization—Optical and mechanical properties.
  • Fig. S12. Measurement setup for characterizing the Van Gogh actuator.
  • Fig. S13. Modeling of the external magnetic field.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video showing the dynamic actuation of the reflective panel array used to raster the MIT logo.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). The printed water lily is placed at fluid interfaces and actuated using a permanent magnet.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Actuation of panel actuators at different frequencies for bandwidth measurements and long-term actuation (1000 cycles).
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Topology optimization of actuators.

Files in this Data Supplement: