Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration and TEM image with a corresponding size distribution histogram of citrate-stabilized Au NPs.
  • Fig. S2. Characterization of the single layer.
  • Fig. S3. Resistance and conductivity.
  • Fig. S4. The specific contents of the Au NPs in the high- and low-gradient multilayer conductors.
  • Fig. S5. SEM of the 9 L high GAP conductor under strain.
  • Fig. S6. Cross-sectional SEM of the 9 L high GAP conductor under a strain of 100%.
  • Fig. S7. High-resolution SEM.
  • Fig. S8. Finite element analysis of (directional) stress distribution.
  • Fig. S9. Change of resistance on the top surface of 9 L high GAP multilayer conductors under dynamic stretching between 0% strain (orange region) and different uniaxial strains (green region) during 1000 cycles.
  • Fig. S10. In situ SAXS analysis.
  • Fig. S11. Characterization of anode materials.
  • Fig. S12. Characterization of cathode materials.
  • Fig. S13. Top-view SEM images of active materials.
  • Fig. S14. Top-view SEM of active materials on a 9 L high GAP conductor under strain.
  • Fig. S15. Half-cell test of the cathode and anode.
  • Fig. S16. Top-view SEM images.
  • Fig. S17. Galvanostatic charge-discharge curves of the full cell at various current densities.
  • Fig. S18. Voltage curves of the stretchable full cell as a function of time at various current densities.
  • Fig. S19. Fatigue test of the stretchable battery under 50% strain over 100 cycles.
  • Fig. S20. Voltage curves of series stretchable full battery in the voltage range from 0 to 4.0 V as a function of time.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.avi format). LED bulb operated using a stretchable aqueous lithium-ion battery.

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