Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. The hydrophobic silane treatment mechanism
  • Section S2. The nanowood membrane before and after hydrophobic treatment
  • Section S3. The natural wood membranes
  • Section S4. Comparison of the wood membranes and common papers
  • Section S5. Anisotropic thermal insulation property of the nanowood membrane and the potential benefits
  • Section S6. Commercial hydrophobic membranes
  • Section S7. Pore size distribution of the commercial membranes
  • Section S8. Morphology and pore structure of the commercial membranes
  • Section S9. Surface hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity
  • Section S10. DCMD reactors and configurations
  • Section S11. Water flux of commercial membranes
  • Section S12. Theoretical thermal conductivity estimation
  • Section S13. Thermal insulation of commercial membranes
  • Section S14. Experimental thermal conductivity and membrane permeability
  • Section S15. Theoretical permeability coefficient and intrinsic permeability
  • Section S16. Wood membrane durability
  • Section S17. Wood membrane application and fouling
  • Fig. S1. Schematics of hydrophobic treatment of wood membranes using silane coupling agent (50).
  • Fig. S2. Surface morphologies and pore size distribution of the nanowood membrane before and after hydrophobic treatment.
  • Fig. S3. Visual images of the hydrophobic natural wood membrane after silane treatment.
  • Fig. S4. Temperature plots of isotropic and anisotropic thermal insulators from a point heat source.
  • Fig. S5. Visual images of the commercial hydrophobic membranes purchased from Tisch Scientific (North Bend, Ohio).
  • Fig. S6. PSD of the commercial membranes.
  • Fig. S7. SEM images of the surface and cross-section of the commercial membranes.
  • Fig. S8. Water contact angles of the commercial and hydrophobic natural wood membranes.
  • Fig. S9. Schematics, images, and control interface of the apparatus for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD).
  • Fig. S10. Water flux of the commercial polymeric membranes in DCMD with feed NaCl (1 g liter−1) temperature continuously varying between 40° and 60°C and distillate (DI water) temperature of 20°C.
  • Fig. S11. IR thermographs of the commercial membranes with the heat source temperature of 60°C.
  • Fig. S12. Temperature plots of anisotropic nanowood and isotropic commercial membranes from a point heat source.
  • Fig. S13. Comparison of experimentally measured intrinsic (thickness-normalized) membrane permeability of the wood and commercial membranes.
  • Fig. S14. Water flux of the hydrophobic wood membranes in DCMD with feed NaCl (1 g liter−1) and distillate (DI water) temperatures controlled at 60° and 20°C, respectively.
  • Fig. S15. Water flux of the hydrophobic nanowood membrane in DCMD with NaCl (35 g liter−1) and synthetic wastewater and distillate (DI water) temperatures controlled at 60° and 20°C, respectively.
  • Table S1. Comparison between nanowood and common paper.

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