Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Mechanical characterization of alginate hydrogels and human breast cancer tissue.
  • Fig. S2. Tumor growth in hydrogels with varying stress relaxation.
  • Fig. S3. Cell cycle progression and cell cycle entry are enhanced in hydrogels with faster relaxation.
  • Fig. S4. The inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway diminishes the diameter of spheroids formed by HT1080 and MCF7 cells.
  • Fig. S5. Cells did not secrete and deposit collagen and laminin-5, and the inhibition of actomyosin contractility did not affect cell cycle progression.
  • Fig. S6. Impact of TRPV4 inhibition on proliferation.
  • Fig. S7. 3D computational simulations of hydrogel deformation due to cell exerting a constant outward stress in hydrogels with varying relaxation.
  • Fig. S8. The growth of single cells in hydrogels with varying stress relaxation.
  • Fig. S9. Increasing osmotic pressure and NHE inhibition regulate cell cycle progression.
  • Fig. S10. Human patient samples show that cancer cells with cytoplasmic and nuclear p27Kip1 exhibit larger cell size than cells with nuclear p27Kip1.
  • Table S1. List of calcium concentrations and corresponding viscoelastic properties.

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