Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Methods
  • Fig. S1. Diagram of the architecture of the deep learning network ButterflyNet used in this study.
  • Fig. S2. Geographic localities for sampled butterfly specimens from the polymorphic mimicry complex of H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Fig. S3. Heatmap showing mean pairwise phenotypic and geographic distances between 38 subspecies of H. erato (black labels) and H. melpomene (gray labels).
  • Fig. S4. Collections of specimen photographs used in this study, grouped by subspecies.
  • Fig. S5. Average pairwise Euclidean geographic distances between subspecies of H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Fig. S6. Neighbor-joining trees of phenotypic distance between subspecies of H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Fig. S7. Comparative analyses of the extent of phenotypic convergence in mimicry.
  • Fig. S8. Principal component visualization of Heliconius butterflies.
  • Reference (41)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Traditionally hypothesized co-mimic subspecies of H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Taxonomic and locality data recorded for historical specimens of H. erato and H. melpomene held in the collections of the NHM London.
  • Table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Coordinates of butterfly images on 64 axes of a Euclidean phenotypic space constructed using a deep convolutional network with triplet training.
  • Table S4 (Microsoft Excel format). Mean pairwise Euclidean phenotypic distances between subspecies from H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Table S5 (Microsoft Excel format). Mean pairwise squared Euclidean phenotypic distances between subspecies from H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Table S6 (Microsoft Excel format). Mean pairwise Euclidean geographic distances between subspecies from H. erato and H. melpomene.
  • Table S7 (Microsoft Excel format). Number of sampled butterfly individuals for each subspecies.
  • Table S8 (Microsoft Excel format). Broad pattern class of the type specimen of each subspecies.
  • Table S9 (Microsoft Excel format). Traditionally hypothesized mimicry complexes of H. erato and H. melpomene subspecies.
  • Table S10 (Microsoft Excel format). Statistical comparisons of pairwise Robinson-Foulds distances between sets of phylogenetic trees.
  • Table S11 (Microsoft Excel format). Statistical comparisons with hybrids excluded of pairwise Robinson-Foulds distances between sets of phylogenetic trees.
  • Supplementary Computer Code

Files in this Data Supplement: