Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Five-year moving average of VPD.
  • Fig. S2. Spatial distributions of the difference of VPD trends (kPa year−1) before and after TP years.
  • Fig. S3. Spatial pattern of VPD changes between 1982–1986 and 2011–2015 derived from CRU dataset.
  • Fig. S4. Interannual variability of SVP (red dots and lines), AVP (green dots and lines), and air temperature (Ta; blue dots and lines) derived from four datasets.
  • Fig. S5. Global mean LAI and linear trends during 1982–2015.
  • Fig. S6. Differences of LAI trends over the globally vegetated areas between before and after TP years.
  • Fig. S7. Model validation of random forest models for simulating NDVI.
  • Fig. S8. Environmental regulations on long-term changes of global NDVI.
  • Fig. S9. Correlations of LUE and VPD at the different temperature ranges taking DE-Tha site as an example.
  • Fig. S10. Correlations between VPD and tree-ring width.
  • Fig. S11. Comparison on changes of global mean GPP trend simulated by ecosystem models.
  • Fig. S12. Projected future changes in VPD.
  • Fig. S13. Validation of EC-LUE model.
  • Table S1. Climate and satellite datasets used in this study.
  • Table S2. Responses of GPP simulated by EC-LUE, MODIS, and TRENDY models to climate variables, satellite-based NDVI and fPAR, and atmospheric CO2 concentration.
  • Table S3. Name, location, and durations of the study EC sites used for revised EC-LUE model calibration and validation.
  • Table S4. Correlations between VPD and LUE at different temperature ranges.
  • Table S5. CMIP5 models used to estimate VPD from 1850 to 2100.
  • Table S6. Correlation matrixes for global VPD simulated by the six CMIP5 ESMs and four historical datasets (CRU, ERA-Interim, HadISDH, and MERRA).
  • Table S7. Model parameters of EC-LUE for different vegetation types.

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