Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Note S1. Purification of spongin, carbonization procedure, and description of in situ monitoring of carbonization process.
  • Note S2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
  • Note S3. BET specific surface area measurements.
  • Note S4. XRD analysis.
  • Note S5. Description of compressive strength measurements.
  • Note S6. 13C solid-state NMR measurements.
  • Note S7. Raman spectroscopy of carbonized spongin.
  • Note S8. XPS measurements.
  • Note S9. NEXAFS measurements.
  • Note S10. Raman spectroscopy of electroplated carbonized spongin.
  • Note S11. XPS of electroplated carbonized spongin.
  • Note S12. For Fig. 5.
  • Note S13. Catalytic activity of CuCSBC.
  • Note S14. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters.
  • Note S15. Resistance to poisoning.
  • Note S16. Influence of the chemical composition of the catalyst on its catalytic properties.
  • Fig. S1. Cultivated H. communis bath sponges can be unique sources for 3D spongin scaffolds with diameters of up to 70 cm.
  • Fig. S2. Monitoring of the selected spongin scaffold carbonization in the temperature range between 25° and 1200°C in an argon atmosphere.
  • Fig. S3. Parameters of the porous structure of native and carbonized spongin.
  • Fig. S4. Mechanical properties of native and carbonized spongin.
  • Fig. S5. TEM micrographs of ultramicrotomy of nonstained, naturally occurring collagen-based spongin fiber.
  • Fig. S6. 13C solid-state NMR analysis of carbonized spongin.
  • Fig. S7. Impact of carbonization temperature on the carbonized spongin scaffold visualized by Raman spectroscopy.
  • Fig. S8. Impact of carbonization temperature on carbonized spongin scaffold visualized by XPS.
  • Fig. S9. SEM images of the 3D carbonized scaffold with nanoporous surface after electroplating with copper and following sonication for 1 hour.
  • Fig. S10. Raman spectrum of copper layers deposited on spongin carbonized at 1200°C.
  • Fig. S11. XPS analysis of carbonized spongin before and after metallization.
  • Fig. S12. Reduction of 4-NP without heterogenic catalyst.
  • Fig. S13. Catalytic performance of CuCSBC.
  • Fig. S14. Thermodynamics of the 4-NP to 4-AP transformation reaction in the presence of CuCSBC.
  • Fig. S15. Catalytic behavior of nonmodified carbonized spongin.
  • Table S1. Microstructure parameters of turbostratic graphite as used in the model reported by Dopita et al. (22).
  • Table S2. Position, intensity ratio of D and G Raman bands, and calculated nanocrystallite size La of spongin carbonized at different temperatures.
  • Table S3. Comparison of catalytic activity using non-noble metal catalysts.
  • Table S4. Calculated thermodynamic parameters of 4-NP reduction using CuCSBC.
  • References (4476)

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