Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. EDS mapping and elemental analysis of the as-obtained VOOH.
  • Fig. S2. Discharge capacities of VOOH nanospheres in 3 M Zn(CF3SO3)2 aqueous electrolyte at a rate of 0.2 A g−1.
  • Fig. S3. Morphological evolution of the VOOH cathode during the first cycle in 3 M Zn(CF3SO3)2 electrolyte at 0.2 A g−1.
  • Fig. S4. EDS mapping and elemental analysis of the electrode after the first discharge.
  • Fig. S5. Schematic illustration of the aqueous phase transition from VOOH to ZVO electrode during electrochemical charge and discharge processes.
  • Fig. S6. Electrochemical performance of VOOH electrodes in organic 0.2 M Zn(CF3SO3)2/acetonitrile electrolyte at 0.2 A g−1.
  • Fig. S7. XRD pattern and SEM image of the VOOH cathode after the electrochemical cycling in organic 0.2 M Zn(CF3SO3)2/acetonitrile electrolyte.
  • Fig. S8. The cycling/electrochemical performance of Zn/VOOH cells in ZnSO4 electrolyte with different concentrations (1 to 3 M) at 0.2 A g−1.
  • Fig. S9. Comparison of the cycling/electrochemical performance of Zn/VOOH cells with different concentrations (1 to 3 M) of Zn(CF3SO3)2 electrolyte at 0.2 A g−1.
  • Fig. S10. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda pore size distribution plot of the hierarchical ZVO.
  • Fig. S11. TEM-EDS analysis of fully charged/discharged ZVO nanoflower cathode.
  • Fig. S12. TGA curve of the hierarchical ZVO nanoflowers under nitrogen atmosphere at a heat ramp of 10°C /min.
  • Fig. S13. Comparison of typical charge/discharge curves and cycling performance of ZVO electrodes in different electrolytes.
  • Fig. S14. Comparison of Nyquist plots of Zn/ZVO cells in different electrolytes.
  • Fig. S15. SEM images of the pristine and cycled Zn anode at 10 A g−1.
  • Fig. S16. XRD patterns of the pristine and cycled Zn anodes.
  • Fig. S17. EIS spectra of Zn/ZVO cell after 1st, 5th, and 10th cycles at 0.2 A g−1 in 3 M Zn(CF3SO3)2 aqueous electrolyte.
  • Fig. S18. Nyquist plots of Zn/ZVO cells at fully charged state in 3 M ZnSO4 and 3 M Zn(CF3SO3)2 electrolyte.
  • Fig. S19. Charge-discharge GITT profiles for the ZVO cathode and the corresponding Zn2+ diffusion coefficient (D).
  • Fig. S20. Long-term cycling performance of Zn/ZVO batteries at various current densities.
  • Fig. S21. Ex situ XRD patterns of the cycled ZVO electrode at 10 A g−1.
  • Table S1. ICP-AES analysis of ZVO at fully charged state.
  • Table S2. Comparison of electrochemical performance of different cathode materials for aqueous Zn-ion batteries.

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