Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Flux attachment in 2D
  • Section S2. Implementing matter coupled to a ℤ2 gauge field in the two-leg ladder geometry
  • Section S3. Gauge structure of two-leg ladders
  • Section S4. Phase transitions of gauge and matter fields
  • Fig. S1. Renormalized tunneling amplitudes determined by Bessel functions.
  • Fig. S2. Two-site two-particle problem.
  • Fig. S3. Flux attachment in a 2D Hofstadter model.
  • Fig. S4. Derivation of the effective Hamiltonian.
  • Fig. S5. Wilson loop scaling.
  • Fig. S6. The Green’s function in the charge sector.
  • Fig. S7. The Luttinger-K parameter.
  • Fig. S8. Rung-Mott state at commensurate filling.
  • Fig. S9. Phase diagram of the ℤ2 LGT on a two-leg ladder for commensurate filling.
  • Fig. S10. Transition in the gauge sector.
  • References (7074)

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