Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Chemical component, fabrication process, and actuation performance of an LCE thin film.
  • Fig. S2. Process of the fabrication of an LCE tubular actuator.
  • Fig. S3. Design, fabrication, and morphology of heating wire.
  • Fig. S4. Temperature change of the LCE artificial muscle film during contraction and recovery.
  • Fig. S5. Cyclic actuation test of the LCE artificial muscle film with applied stress of 0.078 MPa.
  • Fig. S6. Theoretical prediction of bending angle of LCE tubular actuator by using the actuation of LCE artificial muscle thin film.
  • Fig. S7. Characterizations of LCE tubular actuators.
  • Fig. S8. The actuation behavior of LCE tubular actuator with different voltage controls.
  • Fig. S9. Cyclic test of LCE tubular actuator with different heating wires.
  • Fig. S10. The reversible actuation (bending motion and contraction) of LCE tubular actuator in the water environment.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Reversible actuation of LCE thin film actuator.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Reversible bending actuation of LCE tubular actuator (activate one heating wire).
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Reversible bending actuation of LCE tubular actuator (activate two heating wires).
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Homogeneous contraction of LCE tubular actuator (activate three heating wires).
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Soft gripper grasps the vial.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Soft gripper twists the cap.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Untether soft robot walks on the ground.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Untether soft robot manipulates the weight.

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