Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Electric field and current in the CQD device
  • Section S2. ASE in the CQD device without electric field
  • Section S3. Steady-state absorption measurement
  • Section S4. PL dynamics analysis
  • Section S5. Kinetics model
  • Fig. S1. Schematics of the circuit.
  • Fig. S2. Thickness measurement conducted by surface profiler (DektakXT surface profiler).
  • Fig. S3. Permittivity measurement result.
  • Fig. S4. Mutual corroboration to calibrate the voltage drop.
  • Fig. S5. Energy schematic of the device.
  • Fig. S6. Measured current flowing through the circuit.
  • Fig. S7. Edge emission as a function of pump fluence without electric field under 500-ps laser pulse excitation (532 nm).
  • Fig. S8. Measurement setup for electric field–dependent absorbance.
  • Fig. S9. Measuring the transmittance of the CQD layer.
  • Fig. S10. Steady-state absorbance measurement.
  • Fig. S11. Gaussian fitting (red dashed line) of absorbance spectra (black solid line).
  • Fig. S12. Integrated area of A3 as a function of electric field.
  • Fig. S13. Fluence-dependent lifetime probe at peak wavelength.
  • Fig. S14. Fitting results of the subtraction of PL dynamics at different electric fields.
  • Fig. S15. Optical transition processes in neutral CQDs (X), singly charged CQDs (X1−), and doubly charged CQDs (X2−).
  • Fig. S16. COMSOL simulation to determine the coupling efficiency.
  • Fig. S17. Photon emission density as a function of pumping intensity.
  • Fig. S18. The 2d emitted photon decay map under each electric field at the pump fluence of 800 μJ/cm2 and 1000 μJ/cm2.
  • Fig. S19. Population dynamics under an electric field of ~21 kV/cm and with a pump fluence of 100 μJ/cm2.
  • Fig. S20. Population dynamics under an electric field of ~21 kV/cm and with a pump fluence of 1000 μJ/cm2.
  • References (3945)

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