Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Close-up of relative dynamic pressure field from the cross-section shown in Fig. 2.
  • Fig. S2. 3D snapshots of the 10 low Ra models and the model at Earth-like convective vigor (high Rayleigh number).
  • Fig. S3. Initial distribution of continental material (yellow), the stiffer roots being thicker, and dense basal piles (red) in the model with high convective vigor.
  • Fig. S4. Properties of the mantle convection model for the snapshot of Fig. 2 and fig. S1.
  • Fig. S5. Temperature and viscosity profiles in the high Ra calculation.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S3
  • Table S1. Physical parameters of the reference model (low Rayleigh number) and the high Rayleigh number model.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.avi format). Movie showing the closing of an ocean and supercontinent assembly.
  • Movie S2 (.avi format). Movie showing breakup sequences of a supercontinent.
  • Movie S3 (.avi format). Movie showing subduction initiations.

Files in this Data Supplement: