Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of the proposed mechanism for the formation of gold nanoparticles upon irradiation with ionizing radiation.
  • Fig. S2. Plot of peak absorbance at 540 nm versus radiation dose shows the gel nanosensor response as a function of C14TAB concentration and a fixed wait time of 5 min for Na2S addition in all cases.
  • Fig. S3. Images of gel nanosensors, fabricated in 24-well plates and containing 37 mM C14TAB, irradiated with different radiation doses (0 to 10 Gy).
  • Fig. S4. Effect of wait time before Na2S addition on gel nanosensor response.
  • Fig. S5. Effect of wait time before Na2S addition following irradiation on gel nanosensor response.
  • Fig. S6. Schematic illustration of the proposed mechanism used for detecting spatial dose distribution.
  • Fig. S7. Effect of gold salt concentration on the gel nanosensor response and estimation of precursor gold ion conversion to gold nanoparticles.
  • Fig. S8. Gel nanosensor fabricated in six-well plates (≈3.5 cm diameter and same thickness as before, i.e., ≈3 mm) with 37 mM C14TAB and 0.25 mM gold salt was carried out before evaluation as a sensor for the detection of therapeutically relevant radiation doses.
  • Fig. S9. Elemental analyses of nanoparticles.
  • Fig. S10. Response of the gel nanosensor to varying agarose pore size distribution was evaluated by modulating the weight percentage of agarose used during fabrication.
  • Fig. S11. Confocal reflectance microscopy imaging of the gel nanosensor and images depicting ascorbic acid diffusion along the depth of the gel nanosensor.
  • Fig. S12. Four independent experiments showing topographical radiation dose profiles for the gel nanosensor in a head and neck phantom; the average values of these four independent data are presented in Fig. 4.
  • Fig. S13. Schematic illustration of the canine patient set up for topographical dosimetry and visualization using gel nanosensors.
  • Fig. S14. Evaluation of photostability, photobleaching, and long-term storage response of the gel nanosensors.
  • Reference (45)

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