Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDFset includes:

  • Fig. S1. Optical characterization of uniaxially aligned LCE.
  • Fig. S2. Photograph of laser-cut regions of LCE and measured heights.
  • Fig. S3. Stress-strain characterization of uniaxial LCE.
  • Fig. S4. Assembly process for typical uniaxial DLCEA build.
  • Fig. S5. Schematic of DLCEA with coordinate axes and simulation results.
  • Fig. S6. Isometric uniaxial DLCEA relaxation and log-log stress-voltage relation.
  • Fig. S7. Isopotential tests of uniaxial DLCEA.
  • Fig. S8. Schematic of high-voltage switching mechanism, isotonic full cycle actuation, and isotonic actuation characteristics with varying voltage.
  • Fig. S9. Uniaxially buckling DLCEA voltage and frequency response.
  • Fig. S10. Actuation of LCE films with a twisted configuration.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Uniaxial DLCEA with director parallel to Fg.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Uniaxial DLCEA with director perpendicular to Fg.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of uniaxial buckling DLCEA.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of programmable shape change buckling DLCEA.

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