Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Mixed-mode device architecture
  • Section S2. Topography measurements of the full mixed-mode device and cross section of the GST bridge
  • Section S3. Electrical switching threshold dependence
  • Section S4. Optical properties of GST
  • Section S5. Comparison of switching and readout mechanisms in the mixed-mode device
  • Section S6. Additional FDTD simulations for partially crystallized GST
  • Section S7. Multilevel electrical and optical programming
  • Section S8. Photosensitivity of the phase-change memory
  • Fig. S1. Detailed description of the device architecture.
  • Fig. S2. AFM scans of the device focusing on the active region of the PCM.
  • Fig. S3. Voltage threshold requirement for electrical switching of the PCM.
  • Fig. S4. Optical constants (n and k) of GST used in the FDTD simulations.
  • Fig. S5. Illustration for understanding switching and readout mechanism in mixed-mode nanogap devices.
  • Fig. S6. Simulation results for four different crystallization conditions in the mixed-mode nanogap.
  • Fig. S7. Multilevel electrical and optical programming versus programming energy.
  • Fig. S8. Photoconductive effect of the device in amorphous state.

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