Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Historical and contemporary leaf functional trait plots through the origin.
  • Fig. S2. iWUE gain (∆iWUE) of deciduous and evergreen plants in biomes for growth habit, arranged by increasing MAT.
  • Fig. S3. iWUE gain (∆iWUE) of deciduous and evergreen plants in biomes for habitat group, arranged by increasing MAT.
  • Fig. S4. The changes in the ratio of leaf intercellular (ci) to ambient CO2 (ca), Δci/ca, in evergreens and deciduous species in biomes, arranged by increasing MAT.
  • Fig. S5. iWUE change (∆iWUE) of deciduous and evergreen plants versus MAT change (∆MAT) and VPD change (∆VPD) in biome growth habit and habitat group.
  • Fig. S6. Scatter plot of Nmass versus MAT for combined historical and contemporary samples of evergreen and deciduous plants.
  • Fig. S7. Trend of iWUE from tree ring data along increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration between the years 1970 and 2013.
  • Fig. S8. Evergreen and deciduous iWUE plotted against atmospheric CO2 concentration showing slope of response.
  • Fig. S9. Kernel density plots of leaf life span (month) of deciduous and evergreen plants in the boreal-temperate and tropical biomes.
  • Table S1. List of species studied, their leaf habit (evergreen, deciduous), habitat (understory subcanopy and open canopy), and growth habit (shrub and tree).
  • Table S2. Summary of historical and contemporary site location, vegetation type, and collection date in alphabetical order by biome and site name.
  • Table S3. Historical and contemporary samples showing average LMA in evergreen and deciduous group within biome and probability of evergreen LMA larger than deciduous LMA, P* = P(LMAevergreen > LMAdeciduous).
  • Table S4. Average iWUE change (ΔiWUE) in biome between two time points 1988–1991 and 2013–2015 with CI95% from posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis.
  • Table S5. Average iWUE gain (ΔiWUE) in evergreen and deciduous plants within biome with CI95% from posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis.
  • Table S6. Shrub and tree, average iWUE gain (ΔiWUE) in evergreen and deciduous plants within biome, with CI95% from posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis.
  • Table S7. Understory-subcanopy and open-canopy habitat, average iWUE gain (ΔiWUE) in evergreen and deciduous plants within biome, with CI95% from posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis.
  • Table S8. Average annual air temperature change and average annual VPD change of biomes between two time periods 1988–1991 and 2013–2015 with CI95% from posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis.
  • Table S9. Average of coefficients of Model 1 and Model 2 with CI95% from posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis.
  • Table S10. Slope of iWUE response to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ΔiWUE/ΔCO2) for individual trees arranged by leaf habit, species, and references.
  • Table S11. Pearson correlation matrix (lower half panel in gray) and significance (upper half panel) between iWUE, VPD, precipitation, temperature, altitude, and latitude.

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