Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDFset includes:

  • Section S1. Tests for swelling, shrinking, and mechanical properties of printed materials
  • Section S2. Theoretical modeling and parameter determination
  • Section S3. Deformation comparison between conventional and articulated building blocks
  • Section S4. Inverse design
  • Fig. S1. Characterization of swelling, shrinking, and mechanical properties of gel materials.
  • Fig. S2. Schematic curvatures of different 4D-printing strategies and geometrical sizes.
  • Fig. S3. Design concepts and deformation forms of two 4D-printing strategies.
  • Fig. S4. Comparison between experimental results of helical building blocks and the finite element simulation.
  • Fig. S5. Inverse design based on 4D micro-building blocks.
  • Table S1. Rotation angle parameters of the honeycomb-to-wave transformation.
  • Table S2. Rotation angle parameters of a spiral-to-wave transformation.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S7
  • References (5052)

Download PDF

Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Modular morphing system consisting of 60 building blocks encoded into honeycomb shapes.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Modular morphing system consisting of 60 building blocks encoded into roll shapes.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Modular morphing system consisting of 60 building blocks encoded into wave shapes.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Modular morphing system consisting of 60 building blocks encoded into goggle shapes.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Modular morphing system consisting of 60 building blocks encoded into helix shapes.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Modular morphing system consisting of 60 building blocks encoded into spiral shapes.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Transformer assembled by 4D micro-building blocks.

Files in this Data Supplement: