Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Note S1. Pressure drop across silica frit.
  • Note S2. Water evaporation rate measurements and calculations.
  • Note S3. Hydrogel and RO membrane characterization.
  • Note S4. Dependency of water flux on hydraulic pressure in AAO nanopores.
  • Note S5. Derivation of water flux through the hydrogel leaf.
  • Fig. S1. Photograph of the synthetic mangrove.
  • Fig. S2. SEM images of silica frit.
  • Fig. S3. On-line water level monitoring system.
  • Fig. S4. Vapor concentration boundary layer on the AAO membrane.
  • Fig. S5. Initially stable flux followed by total loss of flux for AAO membranes with mean pore diameters of 84 nm as leaves.
  • Fig. S6. Correlation between water flux and NaCl rejection.
  • Fig. S7. Water flux and NaCl rejection without RO membrane root as a function of feed solution osmotic pressure.
  • Fig. S8. Schematic of AAO pores, water meniscus, and vapor concentration boundary layer.
  • Fig. S9. SEM images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) line scan profiles on the cross sections of PVDF and PVDF-poly(HEMA) membranes.
  • Fig. S10. Infrared spectroscopy of PVDF microporous membrane and poly(HEMA) hydrogel in PVDF substrate.
  • Fig. S11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of hydrogel-based leaf.
  • Fig. S12. Impact of feed concentration on evaporative water flux from poly(HEMA) hydrogel leaf.
  • Fig. S13. Modeled profiles for water flux through the hydrogel-based leaf membrane.
  • Table S1. Properties of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) isotropic membrane filters.
  • Table S2. Properties of poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel.
  • References (4952)

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