Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Current efficiency and digital photos of the carbon paper cathodes before and after electrolysis.
  • Fig. S2. Concentration variations of outlet gas using a SnO2 anode and morphology of cathodic product using gaseous CO2 as carbon source.
  • Fig. S3. XRD patterns and Raman spectra of different samples.
  • Fig. S4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the cathodic product.
  • Fig. S5. XRD patterns of the obtained cathodic products kept on different conditions, TGA curves, TEM images, and the corresponding elements distribution images of cathodic products obtained at various voltages.
  • Fig. S6. XRD patterns and FESEM images of metallic Ge obtained from electrolysis of solid GeO2 and its performance as anode materials in LIBs.
  • Fig. S7. Ge-Ca phase diagram, CV curve of GeO2, and morphology characterizations of cathodic products obtained on various conditions.
  • Fig. S8. FESEM images of cathodic products obtained using different cathode substrates.
  • Fig. S9. XRD patterns and the corresponding FESEM images of cathodic product using various anode materials.
  • Fig. S10. Morphology (FESEM and TEM images) of C-CNTs, the cycling performance of Ge@CNTs and C-CNTs electrodes, and the FESEM images of the electrode after cycling tests.

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