Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Aspiration-assisted bioprinter.
  • Fig. S2. Simulation of aspiration.
  • Fig. S3. Dimensional and surface tension measurements.
  • Fig. S4. Compactness of different spheroid types over time.
  • Fig. S5. Calibration of the pneumatic system and positional precision and accuracy for AAB.
  • Fig. S6. Bioprinting of tissue spheroids in 2D and 3D.
  • Fig. S7. Bioprinting of a representative 3D hollow structure.
  • Fig. S8. Printing parameters for microvalve-based bioprinting.
  • Fig. S9. A heterogeneous pyramid construct.
  • Fig. S10. Effect of distance on angiogenic sprouting.
  • Fig. S11. Effect of distance on the directionality of angiogenic sprouting.
  • Fig. S12. Directionality analysis of angiogenic sprouting over time.
  • Fig. S13. Fluorescent and fluorescent/phase images showing angiogenic sprouts from a tdTomato+ HUVEC spheroid toward a spheroid of GFP+ HDF and MSC coculture in different mixing ratios—including HDF (control), 2:1, 1:1, and MSC (control)—on day 7.
  • Fig. S14. Fluorescent and fluorescent/phase images showing angiogenic sprouts from a tdTomato+ HUVEC spheroid toward a spheroid of GFP+ HDF and MSC coculture in different mixing ratios—including HDF (control), 2:1, 1:1, and MSC (control)—on day 7.
  • Fig. S15. Fluorescent and fluorescent/phase images showing angiogenic sprouts from a tdTomato+ HUVEC spheroid toward a spheroid of GFP+ HDF and MSC coculture in different mixing ratios—including HDF (control), 2:1, 1:1, and MSC (control)—on day 7.
  • Fig. S16. Directionality analysis of angiogenic sprouts toward GFP+ HDF and MSC coculture spheroids on day 2.
  • Fig. S17. Directionality analysis of angiogenic sprouts toward GFP+ HDF and MSC coculture spheroids on day 5.
  • Fig. S18. Culture strategies: A schematic of osteogenic culture strategies including strategy nos. 1 and 2.
  • Fig. S19. Osteogenic tissue biofabrication using strategy nos. 1 and 2.
  • Fig. S20. Computer interface of AAB.
  • Table S1. Dynamic contact angles of spheroids at a lifting speed of 5 mm/s.
  • Table S2. Determination of Fup and Fdown for bioprinting of various spheroids in 1% (w/v) alginate.
  • Table S3. Surface tension coefficient of different types of cell media used in our experiments.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S6

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). Real-time video of spheroid lifting and bioprinting process.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Simulation of spheroid aspiration.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Bioprinting of a tower and a bridge using MSC spheroids in air.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Bioprinting of a tissue strand.
  • Movie S5 (.mov format). 3D printing of fibrinogen and thrombin via microvalves.
  • Movie S6 (.mov format). 3D reconstruction of the heterogeneous pyramid construct constituted of tdTomato-labeled HUVEC spheroids on the first and third layers and GFP-labeled MSC spheroids on the second layer.

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