Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Tentative identification of latoxanthin from N. oceanica.
  • Fig. S2. Midpoint-rooted maximum likelihood tree of VDE family proteins from selected species of chromalveolate algae and Viridiplantae (land plants and green algae).
  • Fig. S3. In vitro assays with PtVDL2 using violaxanthin or diadinoxanthin as substrate.
  • Fig. S4. Investigation of other carotenoids than violaxanthin as potential substrates of PtVDL1.
  • Fig. S5. Kinetics of tautomerization of violaxanthin to neoxanthin and of antheraxanthin to deepoxyneoxanthin by PtVDL1.
  • Fig. S6. In vitro activity of PtVDL1 or PtVDE with and without addition of ascorbate.
  • Fig. S7. Pigment composition of chromalveolate algae for which VDL proteins were functionally characterized.
  • Table S1. Pigment stoichiometries in N. oceanica wild type, the vdl mutant, and two strains of the vdl mutant complemented with the native VDL gene (vdl + VDL).
  • Table S2. Pigment stoichiometries in leaves from N. benthamiana transiently expressing PtVDL1 fused either to transit peptide tpNtVDE for luminal targeting or to tpAtZEP for stromal targeting and in leaves expressing PtVDL2 fused with tpNtVDE for luminal targeting.
  • Table S3. Pigment stoichiometries in leaves from N. benthamiana transiently expressing either VDL from algae with diadinoxanthin cycle or VDL from algae with violaxanthin cycle.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Results of targeting prediction for VDL and VDE proteins.
  • Data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Algal sources and database accessions of VDE family protein sequences analyzed in this work.
  • Data file S3 (Microsoft Excel format). PCR templates and primers used for generation of expression constructs used in this work.
  • Data file S4 (Microsoft Excel format). Strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes amplified in this work.

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