Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • The conditions of FIB-SEM lift-out procedure
  • Fig. S1. Characterizations of LiV3O8 powder and LiV3O8 half-cell.
  • Fig. S2. Characterizations of LiMn2O4 powder and LiMn2O4 half-cell.
  • Fig. S3. TXM images of LiMn2O4-LiV3O8 cell with the 1 M LiTFSI:LiBETI and WIS electrolyte collected above and below Mn K-edge.
  • Fig. S4. Voltage profile versus TXM images of the operando LiV3O8-LiMn2O4 cell with the 1 M LiTFSI:LiBETI electrolyte.
  • Fig. S5. Voltage profile versus TXM images of the operando LiV3O8-LiMn2O4 cell with the WIS electrolyte.
  • Fig. S6. Measured area change of the tagged particle with the operando cell’s depth of discharge in Fig. 5.
  • Fig. S7. The electrochemical profiles of two cells which LiMn2O4 electrodes were XANES imaged in Fig. 6.
  • Fig. S8. The high-resolution SEM images corresponding to Fig. 3 (B and E).
  • Fig. S9. The experimental setup for tomography and 2D XANES imaging.
  • Fig. S10. The viscosity as a function of shear rate for the WIS electrolyte and the 1 M LiTFSI:LiBETI electrolyte.
  • Fig. S11. Graphical abstract.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video of the full frame of 1 M aqueous electrolyte cell—Full field of view.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Video of the full frame of 1 M aqueous electrolyte cell—Individual particle.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Video of the full frame of the WIS electrolyte cell—Full field of view.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Video of the full frame of the WIS electrolyte cell—Individual particle.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Nanotomography of 20-μm-thick LiMn2O4 electrode cycled in the WIS electrolyte.

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