Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. FESEM images of the Li plated on bare Cu foil.
  • Fig. S2. FESEM images of the Li plated on the NMMF@C-Cu with the capacity of 0.5 mAh cm−2 at the current density of 0.5 mA cm−2.
  • Fig. S3. FESEM images of the Li plated on the NMMF-Cu.
  • Fig. S4. Characterizations of the NMMF@C cubes after soaking in the ether electrolyte (DOL/DME) for 48 hours.
  • Fig. S5. XRD patterns of the NMMF@C before and after soaking in the ether electrolyte.
  • Fig. S6. Characterizations of the NMMF cubes after soaking in the ether electrolyte for 48 hours.
  • Fig. S7. ICP-MS results showing the concentration of various metal ions in the ether electrolyte for the same period.
  • Fig. S8. The dissolution behavior of NMMF@C as a function of time in the ether electrolyte.
  • Fig. S9. The initial discharge curve of the NMMF@C-Cu anode during the activation process at the current density of 50 mA g−1.
  • Fig. S10. FESEM and elemental mapping images of Li plating on b-Cu with several NMMF@C particles.
  • Fig. S11. A depth profiling of the elements on the Li-plated NMMF@C sample with a capacity of 0.5 mAh cm−2 by XPS sputter etching technique.
  • Fig. S12. A cryo-TEM image of the Li deposited on the NMMF@C-modified Cu grid.
  • Fig. S13. Cryo-TEM characterization for the M layer.
  • Fig. S14. XPS characterization.
  • Fig. S15. EDX characterization.
  • Fig. S16. Electrochemical Li plating curves on NMMF@C-Cu anodes at 1 mA cm−2 for 1 mAh cm−2 during the 100th, 200th, 300th, 400th, and 500th cycles.
  • Fig. S17. The CE versus cycle number plot of the LMA on b-Cu using NaF as the electrolyte additive.
  • Fig. S18. The cycle life of the NMMF@C-Cu electrode at the current densities of 1 and 2 mA cm−2.
  • Fig. S19. Morphology and electrochemical performance of the Cu electrodes with different loading thickness of NMMF@C.
  • Fig. S20. The CE of Li deposition/stripping on the NMMF@C-Cu electrode at high areal capacities.
  • Fig. S21. Nucleation overpotential and polarization potential.
  • Fig. S22. The EIS plots of the NMMF@C-Cu and b-Cu electrodes after the 1st and 50th cycles.
  • Fig. S23. Arrhenius plot of the symmetric NMMF@C-Li//NMMF@C-Li cell.
  • Fig. S24. EIS plots of the symmetric cell at 1 mA cm−2 for 1 mAh cm−2.
  • Fig. S25. The first charge curves of three NCM811/NMMF@C-Li full cells at the current density of 100 mA g−1.
  • Fig. S26. FESEM images of the plated Li and separator in a symmetric cell after 400 cycles.
  • Fig. S27. Charge/discharge curves of full cells.
  • Fig. S28. Rate capability of the NCM811/Cu-Li full cell.
  • Table S1. The mass loss of NMMF@C in the ether electrolyte as a function of time.
  • Table S2. The comparison of the CE of the anode in our work and some reported state-of-the-art anodes tested in the DOL/DME ether electrolyte.
  • References (5357)

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