Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Mass spectra from MALDI-MSI and DESI-MSI experiments with the average spectra from GF and SPF mouse brains overlaid.
  • Fig. S2. MALDI-MSI of organs and blood recovered from C57BL/6 wild-type mice indicated that m/z 160.1 was located systemically in all organs tested as well as present in whole blood.
  • Fig. S3. MALDI-MSI of colon sections from mice treated with antibiotics for 7 days demonstrates that the metabolite at m/z 160.1 is decreased in the colon of antibiotic-treated mice compared to controls.
  • Fig. S4. MS/MS analysis of the metabolite found in the brain and the metabolite of the same m/z (160.133) produced by C. clostridioforme was undertaken.
  • Fig. S5. Mass spectra from the MS/MS analysis of the synthesized standard 5-AVAB compared to the endogenous metabolite in the brain at m/z 160.133.
  • Fig. S6. Overlap of the ion images of m/z 160.1 and m/z 162.1 (carnitine) from SPF and GF mouse brains and abundance of m/z 160.1 from SPF and GF brains and off-tissue negative control area.
  • Fig. S7. Additional information to fig. S5.
  • Fig. S8. OCR was used as an indicator of FAO in the presence of 3M-4-TMAB and 4-TMAP at the indicated concentrations and in the absence of carnitine supplementation.
  • Fig. S9. Average mass spectra from MALDI-MSI and DESI-MSI results showing peaks at m/z 160.133 (3M-4-TMAB/4-TMAP) and m/z 162.112 (carnitine) from GF and SPF mouse brains.
  • Table S1. Summary of the top correlations with Pearson’s coefficient > 0.5 for m/z 160.1 (3M-4-TMAB/4-TMAP) for the SPF brain tissue sections shown in Fig. 4.

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