Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. World map showing the centers where domestication of at least one plant species has occurred in the Early and Middle Holocene.
  • Fig. S2. Formally manufactured stone tools found on the surface or recovered during groundworks for gardening and house construction on the Waim spur by local residents before the archaeological investigations.
  • Fig. S3. Stratigraphic profiles, artefact density, and particle size analysis for the systematically excavated squares at Waim.
  • Fig. S4. Regional geology of the Simbai-Kaironk-Jimi Valleys showing the location of Waim and likely origins of excavated stone artefacts.
  • Fig. S5. Map of known stone mortar-pestle distribution and core distribution of stone carved bird iconography in Papua New Guinea and the adjacent islands relative to the location of Waim.
  • Fig. S6. Structural evidence and artefact distribution at the Waim site.
  • Fig. S7. Principal components analysis of Waim obsidian flaked piece and obsidian sources.
  • Fig. S8. Grassland mountains and forested Jimi River Valley landscape below Waim, looking south, with the Jimi-Wahgi divide in the background.
  • Fig. S9. The Waim site, looking east, situated on a natural hill top within Waim village.
  • Fig. S10. Excavation of the test pit showing the gabbro pestle fragment and other lithic artefacts exposed in the front (northern) half of the square.
  • Fig. S11. Partially exposed section that had been previously cut back by Waim residents around the northern edge of the hilltop.
  • Fig. S12. Square F after excavation showing a possible posthole feature in the lower right hand corner.
  • Fig. S13. The Waim site with the locations of the systematically excavated squares shown.
  • Fig. S14. Stone carving from square B, layer 2b.
  • Fig. S15. Artefact with incised cut/groove marks, from square B, layer 2c.
  • Fig. S16. Ground-stone fragments and corresponding microwear from various squares of the Waim excavations.
  • Fig. S17. Comparative reference starch used in this study and not shown in fig. S20.
  • Fig. S18. Dendrogram for the optimal classifier—a quadratic discriminant—showing the Mahalanobis distance between the means of the species.
  • Fig. S19. The confusion matrix for the reference species used in the study.
  • Fig. S20. Archaeological starch and their correlating species identification.
  • Fig. S21. Phytoliths identified on the Waim pestle and sediment.
  • Table S1. Radiocarbon determinations from Waim, mid-Holocene New Guinea highland sites, and the Holocene sequence from Kuk swamp (phases 1 to 3).
  • Table S2. Excavated lithic artefact assemblage from Waim, by square, layer, and artefact type.
  • Table S3. pXRF elemental concentrations (ppm; Ka1) for the Waim obsidian core and for the obsidian source samples.
  • Table S4. Numbers of grains identified of each of the comparative reference species.
  • Table S5. Error range of Bruker Tracer III-SD during analysis, using the U.S. Geological Survey BHVO-2 Geological Standard.
  • Table S6. Elemental loadings of three components (98% variation) for analyzed obsidian source samples and the Waim obsidian flake.
  • Text S1. Archaeological investigations at Waim
  • Text S2. Stratigraphic descriptions of sedimentary layers at Waim
  • Text S3. Technological and geological characteristics of the Waim lithics
  • Text S4. Microwear analysis of carved and modified lithic artefacts
  • Text S5. Geometric morphometric analysis of ancient starch from Waim
  • Text S6. Phytolith analysis of pestle and sediments from Waim
  • Text S7. pXRF reference data and principal components analysis of Waim obsidian
  • References (4469)

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