PT - JOURNAL ARTICLE
AU - Tavakoli, Armin
AU - Smania, Massimiliano
AU - Vértesi, Tamás
AU - Brunner, Nicolas
AU - Bourennane, Mohamed
TI - Self-testing nonprojective quantum measurements in prepare-and-measure experiments
AID - 10.1126/sciadv.aaw6664
DP - 2020 Apr 01
TA - Science Advances
PG - eaaw6664
VI - 6
IP - 16
4099 - http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/16/eaaw6664.short
4100 - http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/16/eaaw6664.full
SO - Sci Adv2020 Apr 01; 6
AB - Self-testing represents the strongest form of certification of a quantum system. Here, we theoretically and experimentally investigate self-testing of nonprojective quantum measurements. That is, how can one certify, from observed data only, that an uncharacterized measurement device implements a desired nonprojective positive-operator valued measure (POVM). We consider a prepare-and-measure scenario with a bound on the Hilbert space dimension and develop methods for (i) robustly self-testing extremal qubit POVMs and (ii) certifying that an uncharacterized qubit measurement is nonprojective. Our methods are robust to noise and thus applicable in practice, as we demonstrate in a photonic experiment. Specifically, we show that our experimental data imply that the implemented measurements are very close to certain ideal three- and four-outcome qubit POVMs and hence non-projective. In the latter case, the data certify a genuine four-outcome qubit POVM. Our results open interesting perspective for semi–device-independent certification of quantum devices.