Table 1 Results of bulk (multiple particle) analysis performed with the density-separated particle fractions.

Uncertainties are reported as 1σ and have been estimated from repeated control measurements where possible [unknown SDs are indicated by N/K (not known)]. Nickel and vanadium were not detected (N/D) in SEM-EDX and WDXRF analyses of the FRESH sample. As explained in the text, the conversion of the FRESH sample is assumed to approach 100 wt %.

Skeletal density (g/cm3)2.7852.9462.9532.957N/K
SEM-EDX, La (wt %)1.641.701.631.84N/K
SEM-EDX, Fe (wt %)0.271.341.601.61N/K
SEM-EDX, Ni (wt %)N/D0.340.350.40N/K
SEM-EDX, V (wt %)N/D0.200.220.29N/K
WDXRF, La2O3 (wt %)2.862.812.762.740.02
WDXRF, Fe2O3 (wt %)0.340.790.930.960.01
WDXRF, NiO (wt %)N/D0.330.490.590.01
WDXRF, V2O5 (wt %)N/D0.530.660.740.01
BET surface area (m2/g)262.0133.9108.193.32.62
Micropore surface area (m2/g)131.581.673.062.53.66
Micropore volume (cm3/g)0.06050.02430.01630.0140N/K
Mesopore surface area (m2/g)139.052.335.130.83.73
(Pore) accessibility (AAI)
430°F+ conversion (wt %) [CTO: 3 (w/w)]~10065.1257.5954.520.57
430°F+ conversion (wt %) [CTO: 4 (w/w)]~10068.1661.2958.20.57
430°F+ conversion (wt %) [(CTO: 5 (w/w)]~10070.9165.6460.930.57
430°F+ conversion (wt %) [CTO: 6 (w/w)]~10074.4467.4664.210.57