Table 1 Photovoltaic parameters of DSSCs based on the photoanodes of radially oriented mesoporous TiO2 microspheres, bulk mesoporous TiO2, and commercial P25 after TiCl4 treatment [measured under AM 1.5 sunlight illumination (100 mW cm−2)].

The active area of the devices with a metal mask was about 0.16 cm2. FF, fill factor.

SamplesVoc
(mV)
Jsc
(mA cm−2)
FF
(%)
η
(%)
Adsorbed dye
(×10−7 mol cm−2)*
Mesoporous TiO2
microspheres
75122.970.612.12.13
Bulk mesoporous TiO275915.863.17.61.45
P2573412.375.06.81.12

*Dye-adsorbed films with an area of ~10 cm2 were used for estimating the adsorbed dye concentration. The commercial N719 dye was first desorbed into a 0.1 M NaOH solution in water and ethanol [1:1 (v/v)], and the desorbed N719 dye concentration was then measured by using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer.