Table 1 Typology of resilience definitions in ecology and social-ecological systems thinking.
MeaningsAttributes
Descriptive—
neutral (N)
Prescriptive—
good (G)
Bounce backBB-NBB-G
(2) Holling, 1973.
Resilience and
stability of ecological
systems.
(3) Perrings, 1998.
Introduction:
Resilience and
sustainable
development.
Bounce back
and transform
BB-T-NBB-T-G
(16) Walker et al., 2006.
A handful of heuristics
and some propositions
for understanding
resilience in
social-ecological
systems.
(20) Folke et al., 2010.
Resilience thinking:
Integrating resilience,
adaptability and
transformability.