Table 1 Measurements and summary statistics for the skeletal variables in chimpanzees and fossil and recent hominins.
SpeciesVMAVMECLADRAD1RAD2ATMLEAC (Com)AEACLM/LlAFPMM + MIMS
Volume mastoid air cells cm3Volume tympanic cavity cm3Length of aditus mmRadius of aditus exit mmRadius of aditus entrance mmArea of tympanic membrane mm2Complete length of external ear canal mmCross-sectional area of EAC mm2Malleus/incus lever ratioArea of stapes footplate mm2Mass of malleus + incus mgMass of stapes mg
Homo sapiens mean ± SD4.43 ± 2.270.46 ± 0.094.4 ± 0.72.4 ± 0.23.0 ± 0.165.1 ± 5.521.0 ± 2.036.4 ± 7.01.26 ± 0.082.92 ± 0.2149.2 ± 4.42.2 ± 0.6
Homo sapiens range (n)0.52–8.02 (10)0.33–0.62 (10)3.7–6.3 (10)2.0–2.7 (10)2.8–3.2 (10)56.6–74.0 (10)17.7–23.8 (10)26.5–52.0 (10)1.16–1.40 (7)2.51–3.13 (7)41.3–53.0 (8)1.4–3.2 (8)
Pan troglodytes mean ± SD8.89 ± 4.730.42 ± 0.115.4 ± 0.82.0 ± 0.32.8 ± 0.382.1 ± 8.237.9 ± 2.623.0 ± 4.41.67 ± 0.112.79 ± 0.3942.0 ± 6.21.4 ± 0.5
Pan troglodytes range (n)2.25–18.73 (11)0.26–0.62 (11)3.6–6.8 (11)1.5–2.4 (11)2.3–3.3 (11)71.0–102.8 (11)34.2–40.8 (11)16.4–30.3 (11)1.52–1.79 (9)2.40–3.48 (7)35.0–53.0 (8)1.0–2.2 (6)
Cranium 52.150.548.62.93.982.924.626.42.72
AT-8484.325.559.43.58
AT-42182.221.651.52.81
AT-19073.680.765.23.13.974.824.030.21.19
AT-41035.900.514.82.93.576.825.531.2
Atapuerca (SH) mean ± SD3.91 ± 1.890.60 ± 0.146.2 ± 2.13.0 ± 0.13.8 ± 0.280.2 ± 4.224.2 ± 1.639.7 ± 14.71.193.04 ± 0.4752.7
Atapuerca (SH) range (n)2.15–5.90 (5)0.51–0.76 (3)4.8–8.6 (3)2.9–3.1 (3)3.5–3.9 (3)74.8–84.3 (5)21.6–25.5 (5)26.4–59.4 (5)(1)2.72–3.58 (3)(1)
SK 462.550.436.11.82.762.327.247.62.44
SK 472.61
SK 5240.7
SK 84869.830.047.2
SK 8792.43
SKW 18>3.9267.029.838.81.362.42
SKW 2581>4.5630.056.1
SK 140030.534.41.92.863.3
TM 151770.931.739.6
Paranthropus robustus mean ± SD2.550.46 ± 0.065.21.82.766.6 ± 3.829.7 ± 1.644.5 ± 6.21.362.48 ± 0.09
Paranthropus robustus range (n)(1)0.42–0.53 (3)4.4–6.1 (2)1.8–1.9 (2)2.70–2.8 (2)62.3–70.9 (5)27.2–31.7 (5)38.8–56.1 (7)(1)2.42–2.61 (4)
STS 559.428.4
STS 250.363.161.828.537.0
STS 71>27.8
STW 983.430.234.71.12.157.327.42.31
STW 151>27.043.62.12
STW 2552.28
STW 329>1.190.315.61.82.565.139.51.87
STW 370>27.0
STW 49955.555.1
STW 50530.1
Australopithecus africanus mean ± SD3.430.30 ± 0.065.11.52.6 ± 0.559.8 ± 3.828.6 ± 1.143.8 ± 8.02.15 ± 0.20
Australopithecus africanus range (n)(1)0.23–0.36 (3)4.7–5.6 (2)1.1–1.8 (2)2.1–3.1 (3)55.5–65.1 (5)27.4–30.1 (4)37.0–55.1 (4)1.87–2.31 (4)