Table 1 Lunar basins ≥200 km in diameter recognized from GRAIL and LOLA data.

Names are approved by the International Astronomical Union, except where denoted by (a), indicating a name assigned here on the basis of a nearby feature, or (b), a proposed name (5, 29). TOPO and CTA (circular thin area) names are from Frey (28). The diameter of the main or outer ring is from Head et al. (6) and Baker et al. (7) except where a mappable rim is absent, for example, Crüger-Sirsalis; otherwise, coordinates and inner diameter are estimated from Bouguer anomaly contours, whereas the main rim crest diameter is estimated from azimuthally averaged topographic relief or (c) inferred from the diameter of the central Bouguer anomaly by 2:1 scaling. Multiring basin confidence and ring diameter criteria are described in the Supplementary Text. Ring confidence is denoted by the following: { }, suggested by scaling; [ ], possible; ( ), probable; all others, certain. MR, multiring basin; PC, ringed peak-cluster basin (7); PR, peak-ring basin; ghost ring is a wrinkle-ridge arc indicating a possible buried ring.

NameCenterRing diameters
(km)
Bouguer anomaly
Latitude
(°N)
Longitude
(°E)
MainInnerNotes and additional
ring diameters (km)
Diameter (km)Contrast (mGal)
Szilard Northa34.3105.6(200)146182 ± 20
Bel’kovich61.590.220510437 ± 14
Wegener-Winlockb40.2251.6(205)PR*13237 ± 6
Humboldt−27.1581206PC15652 ± 14
Oppenheimer−35.4194.0206PR*12257 ± 8
Schickard−44.5305.0206PR*9257 ± 9
Schwarzschild70.312120771PR9040 ± 9
Galois−14207.7210Minimal contrast2 ± 14
Rupes Rectaa−22.5353.0(212)Partially flooded25 ± 12
Keeler West−10.1156.8(218)Minimal contrast5 ± 20
Clavius−58.8345.3220Minimal contrast6 ± 9
Deslandres−32.6354.7220PR*112142 ± 19
TOPO-13b−37.25147.4[220]90103 ± 12
Poczobutt57.7260.4225PR*12876 ± 12
Pasteur−11.5104.8231PR*13042 ± 9
d’Alembert51.05164.8232106PR12646 ± 6
Landau42.2240.8236PR*11264 ± 9
Campbell45.5153.0237PR*9839 ± 9
Fermi−19.8123.4241PR*10478 ± 5
Leibnitz−38.2179.2247PR*8466 ± 18
Iriduma44.8328.4252Sinus Iridum, PR*38 ± 10
von Kármán M−47.1176.2255[114]PR*128149 ± 18
Gagarin−19.7149.4256PR*10643 ± 13
Copernicus-Ha7.2341.8{260}c[130]c152162 ± 5
Milne−31.25112.8264114PR126195 ± 22
Balmer-Kapteynb−15.869.6265[130]PR*138192 ± 22
Sikorsky-Rittenhausb−68.4109.5270[110]PR*10666 ± 8
Orientale Southwesta−28.0251.0276PR*162173 ± 28
Harkhebi40.098.6280PR*136108 ± 30
Bartels-Voskresenskiya27.7268.2[290][160]PR*152197 ± 22
Bailly−67.1291.1299130PR11294 ± 16
Poincare−57.3163.1312175PR188185 ± 11
Planck−57.4135.1321160PR128167 ± 52
Mediia0.80.5[326]Sinus Medii; CTA-01174160 ± 8
Schrödinger−74.9133.5326150PR154240 ± 19
Aestuuma11.3351.1[330][165]Sinus Aestuum; CTA-25; PR*196268 ± 10
Mendeleev5.5141.1331144PR156159 ± 33
Birkhoff58.9213.4334163PR13090 ± 16
Ingenii−32.8163.8342PR*154181 ± 22
Lorentz34.2263.0351173PR156240 ± 38
Schiller-Zucchius−55.7314.8361179PR210331 ± 15
Lamont4.823.4[370]c[120]Ghost ring206213 ± 23
Crisium Easta16.566[372][186]Possible oblique impact; TOPO-05206339 ± 45
Fowler-Charlierb39.5218.0[374]PR*210156 ± 18
Amundsen-Ganswindtb−81.0123.0378PR*170272 ± 46
Vaporumb14.23.1[410]220Mare; CTA-02222120 ± 24
Korolev−4.4202.2417206PR202173 ± 15
Serenitatis Northa35.716.8[420]c[210]230161 ± 26
Moscoviense26.1147421192PR632 ± 27
Crüger-Sirsalisb−16.0293.0[430]c212PR*268331 ± 19
Mutus-Vlacq−53.524.0[450]c{225}224107 ± 13
Dirichlet-Jacksonb13.4201.8(452)[228]PR*; TOPO-24220182 ± 22
Grimaldi−5.0291.3460234PR220431 ± 15
Apollo−36.1208.3492247PR264329 ± 10
TOPO-22a49.4179{500}[250]cDepression near Debye272274 ± 21
Hertzsprung2.0231571256MR intermediate (408), inner depression (108)254 ± 38404 ± 37
Freundlich-Sharonovb18.35175.2582318PR318528 ± 18
Fitzgerald-Jacksonb25.1190.6{600}(346)334224 ± 48
Humboldtianum57.2682618322Possible MR intermediate [463], [197]312 ± 27482 ± 12
Moscoviense Northa27.3148.8640[340]PR*; double impact (65)
Mendel-Rydbergb−49.8265.4650( 325)MR 485, 203328 ± 26572 ± 18
Coulomb-Sartonb51.2237.5[672]315Possible MR (401), 158330 ± 18391 ± 20
Fecunditatis−4.652.0[690]{345}Mare basin358205 ± 46
Nubium−21.3343.4[690]Mare basin, estimates vary41681 ± 41
Asperitatisa−7.726.8{730}c(345)cSinus name342260 ± 26
Humorum−23.8320.8816441Probable MR (569), (322)360 ± 21450 ± 11
Smythii−2.586.9878484Probable MR (375)438 ± 62494 ± 24
Australe Northa−35.596{880}Mare basin538101 ± 22
Nectaris−15.635.1885440Certain MR 623, (270)440 ± 61514 ± 12
Serenitatis25.418.8[923][416]Possible MR 660556 ± 64450 ± 8
Orientale−20.1265.2937481Certain MR 639, 341436 ± 20720 ± 28
Crisium16.858.41076505Probable MR 809, (364)498 ± 31598 ± 10
Imbrium37341.51321676Probable MR (1012)684 ± 45375 ± 37
South Pole–Aitkenb−53.0191.024002028Elliptical shape, 19°W long axis395

*The topographic rim is in the diameter range of peak-ring basins but no inner ring has been preserved.

Contrast estimate from nonoverlapped portion. The estimated Bouguer anomaly contrast for South Pole–Aitken is taken from a gravity field band-passed from spherical harmonic degrees 1 to 540.

The characteristics of a pre-Moscoviense impact, designated Moscoviense North, are further described in the Supplementary Materials.