Table 1 Results summary.

FFT, fast Fourier transform; ml, multilayer; n.a., not applicable.

SpeciesConditionColor,
region
Observed peak
(nm)
Predicted peak
(nm)
Hair
nanostructure
Thickness/
distance (nm)
Native location
E. pulcherrimaklaasiSubadult,
dissecting
Purple, leg406.5390 (FFT)Quasi-ordered120.4*Ecuador, ground habitat
T. violaceusSubadult,
dissecting
Purple, leg462470 (FFT)Quasi-ordered159.9*French Guiana, Brazil,
arboreal
C. cyaneopubescensSubadult,
exuvia
Blue, leg478460 (FFT)Quasi-ordered141.1*Venezuela, Paraguana,
ground habitat
L. violaceopesAdult,
dissecting
Blue, leg450440 (FFT)
424 (ml)
MultilayerChitin: 92 ± 5
Air: 55 ± 6
Malaysia, Singapore,
arboreal
E. cyanognathusSpiderling,
exuvia
Blue,
chelicerae
458440 (FFT)
388 (ml)
MultilayerChitin: 76 ± 13
Air: 69 ± 12
French Guiana,
ground habitat
A. laetaSpiderling,
exuvia
Blue, leg447.5420 (FFT)
444 (ml)
MultilayerChitin: 86 ± 7
Air: 81 ± 8
Brazil, Puerto Rico,
arboreal
P. metallicaSubadult,
exuvia
Purple, leg440480 (FFT)
432 (ml)
MultilayerChitin: 83 ± 5
Air: 80 ± 5
India, arboreal
G. roseaAdult,
dissecting
Pink,
carapace
459n.a.n.a.n.a.Chile, Bolivia, Argentina,
ground habitat

*Calculated from predicted peak [½ × predicted peak (nm)/averaged refractive index].

†Based on Fig. 2E [TEM photo courtesy of R. F. Foelix (18)].