Table 1 A library of icephobic surfaces.

The coating fabrication methodology and resulting ice adhesion strengths, cross-link densities, and water contact angles for all the samples fabricated in this work. SG, Sylgard; SO, silicone oil; PS, polystyrene; PIB, polyisobutylene; PFPE, perfluoropolyethers; FPU, fluorinated polyurethane polyols; PMPS, polymethylphenyl siloxane; UVA, ultraviolet A; RT, room temperature; NS, no slippage (no oil is added to the coating); IS, interfacial slippage (miscible oil has been added but no lubricating liquid layer forms) [confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy, and the shape of the force versus time curves]; L, lubricated [excess oil (either intentionally or otherwise) is added to the coating, forming a thick lubricating layer] (confirmed using the same methods as for interfacial slippage).

Polymer
base
Nonreactive
oil
wt %Reactive
oil
wt %Cure
(°C/hour)
ρCL
(mol/m3)
τice
average (kPa)
τice
min.
(kPa)
τice
max.
(kPa)
Typeθadvrec
(°)
ASG 184 10:1150/24307±8264245340NS120/94
BSG 184 10:180/2333±45473657IS131/26
CSG 184 20:180/2112±1178147251NS129/45
DSG 184 4:180/233±458942165IS127/36
ESG 184 3:180/2268±215629L122/76
FSG 184 2:180/2222±914623L118/77
GSG 184 5:280/2267±2116826L112/100
HSG 184 1:180/2162±514629L112/89
ISG 184 10:1100-cP SO2580/2219±13352656IS123/89
JSG 184 10:1100-cP SO5080/272±118740120IS114/94
KSG 184 10:1100-cP SO7580/2553071IS114/94
LSG 184 10:1PMHS2580/2215±10101.031L105/103
MSG 184 10:1PMHS5080/275±136731121IS118/101
NSG 184 10:1PMHS7580/2174.939L121/102
OSG 184 1:1100-cP SO2580/232±217358237IS124/86
PSG 184 1:1100-cP SO5080/213±2461774IS124/82
QSG 184 1:1100-cP SO7580/2180.1547IS104/103
RSG 184 1:1PMHS2580/2102±5171.040L125/104
SSG 184 1:1PMHS5080/214±460.730L106/105
TSG 184 1:1PMHS7580/290.3531L105/103
USG 184 10:1100-cP SO25PMHS25150/24536±97645078IS119/95
VSG 184 10:1100-cP SO15PMHS1580/2311.0137L108/104
WSG 184 10:1100-cP SO10PMHS10150/24459±97440116IS123/90
XSG 184 10:1PMHS1080/2283±9374.071IS114/100
YSG 184 10:1PMHS10150/24284±41173122234NS121/78
ZSG 184 10:1PMHS2080/2197±4451982IS109/105
AASG 184 10:1PMHS20150/24348±28643492IS118/93
BBSG 184 10:1PMHS25150/24452±9302275346NS103/84
CCSG 184 10:1100-cP SO25PMHS15150/24405±27584173IS112/104
DDSG 184 10:1100-cP SO20PMHS2080/2107±2379.167IS109/100
EESG 184 10:1100-cP SO25PMHS2580/2150±8355.177IS116/99
FFSG 184 10:1100-cP SO25PMHS10150/24290±25412455IS112/108
GGSG 184 10:15-cP SO2580/2181±5145109178IS121/90
HHSG 184 10:11000-cP SO2580/2153±7453353IS100/85
IISG 184 10:110000-cP SO2580/267±28113226L120/104
JJSG 184 10:1SO AP 10002580/2216±36612171L113/78
KKSG 527 1:1150/240.68147.625NS130/89
LL1:9 SG 527:184100-cP SO25150/24182±11147.318IS112/103
MM1:3 SG 527:184100-cP SO25150/24123±2105.517IS111/104
NN1:1 SG 527:184100-cP SO25150/2476±195.512IS112/102
OO3:1 SG 527:184100-cP SO25150/2446±263.78IS114/101
PP3:1 SG 527:184150/2450±210449IS123/100
QQ1:3 SG 527:184150/24104±5141130154NS122/95
RR1:1 SG 527:184150/24110±5196.737IS117/88
SS9:1 SG 527:184100-cP SO25150/248.0±0.864.17IS121/98
TT9:1 SG 527:184150/249.1±0.9134132139NS121/96
UUPFPEUVA 5 min160±35238200281NS115/93
VVPFPEKrytox 10025UVA 5 min96±24311753IS115/95
WWPFPEKrytox 10525UVA 5 min124±33311655IS104/98
XXPFPEKrytox 10325UVA 5 min121013IS114/91
YYPFPECN400210UVA 5 min453351L117/91
ZZFPU80/721098±98538257627NS103/72
AB*FPU80/72475±14394334479NS105/73
AC*FPU80/72316±17284204399NS101/73
AD*FPUKrytox 1002580/721142±158595538713IS101/72
AE*FPUKrytox 1052580/721112±77392283520IS105/72
AF*FPUNCO C5075150/241332±48246194320IS108/84
AG*FPU100-cP SO5NCO C507580/728261100IS109/82
AH*FPU100-cP SO10NCO C507580/72492266IS106/96
AIPSRT/24447,000336189370NS97/86
AJPS200 Mw PS25RT/24424271569IS103/74
AKPS200 Mw PS50RT/24570378642IS109/58
ALPS540 Mw PS25RT/24477454510IS100/79
AMPSSO AP 100025RT/249259112L103/97
ANPSPMPS10RT/24354218491IS98/84
AOPSPMPS5RT/24333217498IS99/84
APPIBRT/248,000395335453NS125/56
AQPIBPolybutene25RT/24288220419IS128/56
ARPIBPolybutene50RT/24459341620IS130/17
ATPIBPolybutene75RT/24268176442IS128/72
AUVytaFlex10RT/2426±714484254NS52/12
AVVytaFlex40RT/2495±14151118192NS80/26
AWVytaFlex60RT/24290±17261157360NS82/23
AXVytaFlex40Vegetable20RT/2453±410.54.622L68/21
AY*VytaFlex40Cod liver15RT/2429±227951IS75/12
AZ*VytaFlex40100-cP SO10RT/24411883L82/45
BAVytaFlex40NCO Di-501RT/2447±310951179IS96/49
BBVytaFlex40NCO Di-505RT/2452±210142232IS110/56
BCVytaFlex40NCO Di-5010RT/2434±713949243IS113/60
BD*VytaFlex40100-cP SO10NCO Di-10050RT/2421±111615IS97/89
BE*VytaFlex40NCO C5050RT/2442±0.4442555IS106/81
BEVytaFlex40100-cP SO5NCO C5050RT/24361857IS100/85
BF*VytaFlex40100-cP SO10NCO C505080/7211617IS95/86
BG*VytaFlex40NCO C5075RT/24171±4493865IS102/85
BH*VytaFlex40100-cP SO10NCO C5075RT/249312IS91/82
BI*VytaFlex401000-cP SO10NCO C5075RT/2410514IS99/90
BJ*VytaFlex405-cP SO10NCO C5075RT/24181224IS102/83
BKVytaFlex4010,000-cP SO10NCO C5075RT/24191431IS102/92
BLVytaFlex40100-cP SO5RT/24777090L70/42
BMVytaFlex40100-cP SO10RT/24805891L68/42
BNVytaFlex40100-cP SO15RT/249868128L65/41
BOVytaFlex40100-cP SO20RT/249376107L67/42
BOVytaFlex40Vegetable5RT/2462±212877200IS79/23
BQVytaFlex40Vegetable10RT/2462±4238233247IS89/48
BRVytaFlex40Vegetable15RT/2449±212191151IS32/20
BSVytaFlex40Vegetable20RT/2453±4173141227IS43/34
BTVytaFlex40Cod liver5RT/24129107166IS67/29
BUVytaFlex40Cod liver10RT/24705685IS59/34
BVVytaFlex40Cod liver15RT/24110100120IS46/34
BWVytaFlex40Cod liver15RT/2429±2429IS43/25
BXVytaFlex40Vegetable15RT/2452±111315IS88/44
BYVytaFlex40Safflower2.5RT/2463±0.5302043IS100/32
BZ*VytaFlex40Safflower5RT/2450±0.511916IS82/28
BA*VytaFlex40Safflower10RT/2445±56412IS72/24
CBVytaFlex40Safflower15RT/2433±1417IS67/29
CCVytaFlex40Safflower20RT/2432±0.46311L56/44
CDVytaFlex40Safflower25RT/2445±2426L52/43
CEVytaFlex40Cod liver20RT/249776114L34/21

*Films that were spray-coated (500 mg/ml). All others are spin-cast at 1500 rpm for 60 s (200 mg/ml).

†Films that were dip-coated (500 mg/ml).

‡Approximated from the elastic modulus of the polymer.