Table 1 Summary of the interaction kinetics of environmental chemicals with mouse P-gp.

Compounds that were inhibitors in both assays and present in humans are in boldface. Compounds that were inhibitors in both assays but not known to be detected in humans are italicized. Y, yes; N, no; HCH, hexachlorocyclohexane; DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane; DDE, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid; PFOS, perfluorooctane sulfonate; DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; NI, noninteraction; DL, dioxin-like PCB congeners.

ChemicalIC50 (μM)*IMax (%)IYeast
Organochlorine pesticides
  Aldrin26.2 (±1.9)0.93Y
  Dieldrin21.8 (±4.2)0.69Y
  Endrin1.1 (±0.7)0.51Y
  α-HCH26.8 (±18.0)0.09N
  γ-HCH (lindane)82.6 (±9.9)0.58N
  Heptachlor10.4 (±0.9)0.98N
  Methoxychlor21.7 (±2.4)0.57N
  Mirex3 (±0.2)0.24N
  4,4′-DDD72.5 (±5.7)0.45Y
  4,4′-DDE31.3 (±3.7)0.63Y
  4,4′-DDT25.6 (±4.8)0.61Y
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
  PBDE-4722.6 (±6.2)0.52Y
  PBDE-4935.6 (±5.4)0.52Y
  PBDE-10023.2 (±2.9)0.68Y
  PBDE-2096.5 (±0.4)0.94N
  PFOA156.5 (±6.1)1.20N
Plastic-related compounds
  Bisphenol ANI0.00N
Polychlorinated biphenyls
  PCB-118DL15.9 (±1.0)0.89N
  PCB-134§12.5 (±0.8)0.82Y
  PCB-1426.1 (±0.7)0.90Y
  PCB-1454.4 (±0.4)0.92Y
  PCB-14612.8 (±1.9)0.50Y
  PCB-147§23.6 (±3.1)0.82Y
  PCB-15222 (±4.2)0.84N
  PCB-153§21.8 (±3.1)0.46N
  PCB-154§14.3 (±1.1)0.54N
  PCB-16143.2 (±8.3)0.40N
  PCB-168§25.8 (±3.7)0.66N
  PCB-169DL9.7 (±0.5)0.93N
  PCB-1709.2 (±0.8)0.73Y
  PCB-1866.9 (±0.5)0.91N
  PCB-18711.6 (±0.6)0.56Y

*Inhibition coefficients (IC50) (±SD) of verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity.

†Percent maximum inhibition (IMax).

‡Inhibition in the yeast cytotoxicity assay (IYeast).

§Co-elusion with other PCB congeners.