Table 2 Empirical studies of failed and stalled predator recoveries.
StudyRegionSystemPredatorSummary research results
(84)AfricaTCheetahIn reserves of Kenya and South Africa, cheetahs have failed to recover because lions and
hyenas kill the cheetah cubs.
(106)AntarcticaMFur sealLeopard seal predation on fur seal pups limited recovery.
(107)Southwest AlaskaMSea otterPredation by killer whales on sea otters depressed population recovery.
(108)North AmericaTBobcatSuggests that bobcats compete with coyotes for resources and are also killed by them.
Need to verify that bobcat recovery is desired and that population size trajectory is not as
positive as desired.
(109)Eastern Scotian Shelf
(Northwest Atlantic)
MCodGray seal predation, not competition and predation related to forage fish abundance, may
contribute to high mortality rates of older cod, preventing or slowing recovery.
(110)North America (California)TMountain lionEspecially in southwestern California, urban development has fragmented mountain lion
habitat, reducing genetic exchange and prey base available to facilitate population growth.
(111)North America (Arizona
and New Mexico)
TGray wolfMexican wolf reintroductions have been minimally successful compared to other locations,
in large part due to human hunting, purportedly in response to wolf predation on livestock.
(112)North AmericaMCook Inlet belugaPopulation is small in number and geographically isolated and inhabits a core habitat
that is shrinking
(113)North AmericaMSouthern Resident
killer whale
Juveniles from this population were targeted for aquaria removals until the early 1970s.
Because of its small population size, skewed age distribution, and various human threats
(contaminants and lack of prey), it is not growing fast enough to meet recovery goals.
(114)North America
MVaquitaIUCN recognized this as the most endangered cetacean species in the world; like beluga,
the population size is small (<250) and geographically isolated. Further, vaquita are also
incidentally captured in gillnet fisheries and further affected by humans
(115)North AmericaTNorthern spotted
Stable in portions of the range, but continual declines in others, as a result of habitat loss and
interspecific competition with barred owls
(116)North AmericaT/FWood storkFederally listed wood storks consumed by nonnative introduced Burmese pythons
(117)North AmericaFLake troutInvasive predator has had severe impacts on threatened Yellowstone cutthroat trout.