Table 1 Empirical studies of successful predator recoveries.

T, terrestrial; M, marine; F, freshwater; IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature; MMPA, Marine Mammal Protection Act.

StudyRegionSystemPredatorSummary of research results
(84)AfricaTCheetahCheetahs survive with larger predators by seeking areas with low predator densities (spatial segregation from predators
and competitors).
(84)AfricaTCheetahSuccessful reintroduction in Namibia, where larger carnivores were nearly extirpated by hunting [see also the work by Polis and
Holt (84)].
(85)North AmericaTWolfWolf-driven declines in coyotes led to a fourfold increase in survival of juvenile pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana)
in wolf restoration areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.
(86)EuropeTLynxIn Europe, restored lynx and wolf populations suppress red foxes.
(86)EuropeTWolfIn Europe, restored lynx and wolf populations suppress red foxes.
(87)New ZealandTCook’s petrelReductions in predatory feral cats and rats and altitude-dependent resource availability promote petrel recovery.
(88)North America
Reduced exploitative and interference competition between mountain lions and other historically abundant predators
(grizzly bears and wolves), combined with increased ungulate prey abundance, has facilitated mountain lion recovery.
(89)T/MPolar bearAppreciation of social-ecological system allowed for subsistence harvest and reduced illegal hunting in shared population
between the United States and Russia.
(90)North AmericaFBassFollowing natural extirpation of bass (Micropterus salmoides) in 1978, reintroduced bass in 1986 led to the return of bass
populations despite exploitative competition with dominant mesopredators.
(91)AustraliaTDingoRestoration of dingoes in parts of Australia is now being advocated as a necessary condition for the large-scale rees
tablishment of declined mammal species (91).
(92)North AmericaTPeregrine
Populations declined globally because of exposure to contaminants and are listed in the United States in 1970 after being
extirpated east of the Rockies. Declines of DDT and captive breeding led to rebound, and delisting in 1999.
(93)EuropeTBrown bearPopulations hunted to near extinction in the 1800s in much of Europe, including Norway and Sweden. Economic in
centives and conservation plans have led to a rebound in recent years.
(94)GlobalT/MSea eagleBald and white-tailed eagles were either directly removed or negatively affected by pesticides until the latter half of the
20th century. Since then, populations have recovered worldwide, to the point that these apex predators are having some
worrying effects further down the food chain.
(95)AsiaTAsiatic lionFollowing collapse, incentivized pastoral communities to move, which allowed forest/prey populations to recover and
lion populations to rebound
(96)North AmericaFAlligatorAlligators were depleted as a result of habitat loss and hunting; following protection in 1967, alligators increased nearly
exponentially and were delisted in 1987.
Like alligators in North America, these crocodiles were affected by habitat destruction and hunting. Populations have
been increasing since IUCN recognition and legal protection in 1981.
Intense commercial hunting in the mid-20th century led to a population collapse, from near 100,000 to 500. Legal protection in
1971 and conservation actions have helped the population largely to recover, increasing interactions (mortality) with humans.
(99)AfricaMFur sealLike many pinniped populations (30), fur seals were commercially hunted through part of the 20th century, and portions
of this population continue to be harvested; following protection in part of the range, the species has shown increasing
trends and range expansion.
(100)Northeast Pacific
MWhite sharkWhite sharks were either removed as pest species or taken incidentally in fisheries through most of the 20th century and,
in a portion of their range, were negatively affected by contaminants. Recognition of declines and their importance led to
reductions in mortality; over the last 20 years, indices of abundance and juvenile growth are increasing.
(101)Northeast PacificMBlue whaleBlue whales were targeted during industrial whaling, leaving them at a fraction of carrying capacity. Following the cessation of whaling, and additional protection, this population is thought to nearly be at historic levels.
(102)Northeast PacificMSea otterSea otters were hunted to local extinction through much of their range but, following protection under the MMPA, has
largely rebounded in California.
(103)New ZealandMSpiny lobsterMarine reserves were used as a tool to protect spiny lobster habitat. Older reserves were found to yield higher
lobster density, as well as larger lobsters.
(104)North AmericaMGray whaleFollowing the end of whaling and protection under the MMPA, gray whales largely rebounded and were the first
marine mammal species delisted from the ESA.
Wolves have largely declined as a result of habitat loss. These populations experienced a catastrophic
disease-induced collapse 20 years ago but have fully recovered and are no longer affected by Allee dynamics.