Table 1 Ultrasensitive molecular sensor.

Comparison of the performance of different graphene samples as GERS substrates for molecular sensing. R6G, rhodamine 6G; PPP, protoporphyrin; CuPc, copper phthalocyanine.

Sensing materialType of grapheneDetection levelLaser lineReference
RhBCVD N-doped graphene5 × 10−11 M514 nmThis work
R6GCVD N-doped graphene1 × 10−8 M514 nmThis work
PPPCVD N-doped graphene1 × 10−8 M647 nmThis work
R6GExfoliated graphene8 × 10−10 M514 nm(5)
PPPExfoliated graphene2 × 10−8 M633 nm(5)
R6GExfoliated graphene1 × 10−5 M514 nm(6)
PPPExfoliated graphene1 × 10−5 M633 nm(6)
CuPcExfoliated graphene1 × 10−6 M633 nm(12)
CRVExfoliated graphene5 × 10−7 M514 nm(27)
RhBMildly reduced GO5 × 10−8 M514 nm(29)
MBExfoliated graphene1 × 10−4 M647 nm(25)
CuPcExfoliated graphene on Au1 Å on top633 nm(28)
CuPcExfoliated graphene3 Å on top633 nm(26)
PPPExfoliated graphene3 Å on top633 nm(26)