Table 1 Comparison of reported typical fuel cell performances on using carbon and biomass as the fuel.

YSZ, yttria-stabilized zirconia.

ElectrolyteCharge
carrier
CathodeAnodeFuelOxidantTemperature
(°C)
OCV
(V)
Power
density
(mW/cm)
References
NaOH/KOH
(54:46 molar ratio)
OHNickel wound
tube
Nickel meshActivated carbonO2/air +
H2O
500~0.91~38.5(10)
YSZO2−La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 +
Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ
(Ni0.9-Fe0.1)-
Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ
CharcoalO28001.035(9)
YSZO2−La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δNi-YSZMixture of
pyrolyzed
fiberboard and
Li2CO3-K2CO3
(62:38 mol)
Flowing air7501.013878(5)
38% Li2CO3 +
62% K2CO3
CO32−LiNiOx on stain
less steel
Ni-coated
stainless steel
SootFlowing
CO2 + O2
(molar ratio,
1:1)
800~1.04~96(24)
32 wt % Li2CO3 +
68 wt % K2CO3
CO32−Ag sheetPorous Ni rodGraphiteFlowing
CO2 + O2
(molar ratio,
2:1)
700~1.0~640(25)
Molten
(Li,Na,K)2CO3
CO32−(O2)AgAgBamboo
charcoal
Static air8000.97430This study
Nafion 212H+Pt/CCarbon paper/
carbon nanotube/
enzyme
0.01 mM
maltodextrin
Air50~0.60.8(7)
Nafion 117H+Pt/CPt/CStarch
processing
waste water
Air300.490.0239(38)
Nafion 117H+Pt/CCarbon cloth (C)Lignin in
H3PMo12O40
solution
Flowing O2Room
temperature
~0.37~0.55(6)
Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ
(Li,Na)2CO3
O2−/CO32−Lignin + active
carbon
Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ-
(Li,Na)2CO3
Composite
Li/Cu/Ni/Zn
oxides
LigninFlowing air560~0.7425(16)
62 mol % Li2CO3 +
38 mol % K2CO3
CO32−AgAg62 mol %
Li2CO3 +
38 mol %
K2CO3 + 5 wt %
carbon
Flowing
CO2 + air
7000.934(11)
Molten
(Li,Na,K)2CO3
CO32−(O2)AgAgWoodStatic air8000.9410This study