Table 2 Estimated impact of GE varieties on the farmer, consumer, and ecology components of EIQ-weighted pesticide use, average impact over 1998–2011 (assumes βt = β, ∀ t).

N = number of observations. SEs (in parentheses) are clustered at the farmer level. The model includes time fixed effects, CRD-specific time trends, and individual (farmer) fixed effects. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.

Soybean herbicide EIQMaize herbicide EIQMaize insecticide EIQ
FarmerConsumerEcologyFarmerConsumerEcologyFarmerConsumerEcology
Gi−0.0081***−0.0281***0.0407***−0.0301***−0.0534***−0.1755***−0.0019***−0.0003***−0.0100***
(0.0021)(0.0013)(0.0091)(0.0024)(0.0017)(0.0116)(0.0003)(0.0001)(0.0011)
N86,73686,73686,736134,264134,264134,264134,264134,264134,264
R20.0340.0510.0270.0290.0480.0250.0410.0270.053