Table 2 Indicators used to evaluate SDG strategies.

Each SDG strategy is scored according to its effect on five environmental indicators of planetary boundaries—LULUCF carbon emissions, agricultural water use, deforestation, biodiversity loss, and fertilizer use—and on global food prices in years 2030 and 2050 of the simulation. The SDGs relevant to each of the planetary boundaries are indicated, thus closing the policy process and pressure-state-response (PSR) loops. All metrics refer to globally aggregated results from the GLOBIOM model.

Pressure indicatorSDG targetsUnits
Food price index2
LULUCF emissions13Embedded Image
Agricultural water use6km3
Deforestation6, 13, and 15103 ha
Biodiversity loss15103 ha
Fertilizer use2 and 13103 ton