Table 2 Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending.

Effects are shown for spending in the private market (A), the PDS (B), and overall (C). The SEs are clustered by habitation and are shown in parentheses. All dependent variables are measured in rupees per month. n = 3825; number of households, 1281. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.

ITT (OLS)LATE (IV)
(1)(2)(3)(4)
(A) Kerosene spending on private market
Treatment−14.01*** (5.28)−14.49** (6.91)−47.49** (19.83)−49.36** (24.62)
Household FEYesYes
Wave FEYesYesYesYes
Pretreatment mean for control group = 72
First-stage estimate0.290.29
First-stage F statistic10.1510.01
(B) Kerosene spending on PDS
Treatment3.37 (2.71)1.23 (2.62)11.41 (9.81)4.18 (8.79)
Household FEYesYes
Wave FEYesYesYesYes
Pretreatment mean for control group = 35
First-stage
estimate
0.290.29
First-stage F
statistic
10.1510.01
(C) Total kerosene spending
Treatment−10.64**
(4.56)
−13.26**
(6.01)
−36.08**
(15.93)
−45.18**
(22.21)
Household FEYesYes
Wave FEYesYesYesYes
Pretreatment mean for control group = 107
First-stage
estimate
0.290.29
First-stage F
statistic
10.1510.01