Table 1 Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity.

Results are shown for household electrification (A) and hours of electricity per day (B). The SEs are clustered by habitation and are given in parentheses. The dependent variable in (A) is a dichotomous variable that takes a value of 1 if the household reports having electricity and 0 otherwise. The dependent variable in (B) is the number of hours of electricity available per day. n = 3825; number of households, 1281. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01. FE, fixed effects.

ITT (OLS)LATE (IV)
(1)(2)(3)(4)
(A) Access to electricity
Treatment0.10**(0.04)0.08* (0.04)0.36** (0.14)0.29** (0.14)
Household FEYesYes
Wave FEYesYesYesYes
Pretreatment mean for control group = 0.01
First-stage estimate0.290.29
First-stage F statistic10.1510.01
(B) Hours of electricity
Treatment0.42 (0.26)0.29 (0.27)1.42 (0.91)0.99 (0.92)
Household FEYesYes
Wave FEYesYesYesYes
Pretreatment mean for control group = 0.12
First-stage estimate0.290.29
First-stage F statistic10.1310