Table 1 Participant demographic information and behavioral performance.
Trained groupUntrained groupGroup difference
n219
Age (years)31.57 ± 4.90*31.78 ± 5.47*z = 0.21, P = 0.837
Gender (female/male)20/18/1
Monthly income (Rupees)2313.50 ± 629.15*2500 ± 433.01*z = 0.96, P = 0.375
Literate family members2.95 ± 1.54*2.86 ± 1.46*z = 0, P = 1
Raven test13.29 ± 2.67*11.67 ± 2.60*z = 1.42, P = 0.164
Letter knowledge pretest10.38 ± 12.50*7.22 ± 10.12*z = 0.98, P = 0.341
Letter knowledge posttest33.81 ± 7.11*5.44 ± 9.84*z = 4.21, P < 0.001
Word reading pretest0.57 ± 1.57*1.56 ± 2.65*z = 1.41, P = 0.301
Word reading posttest7.10 ± 8.53*1.56 ± 2.35*z = 2.61, P = 0.009
Days between tests189.76 ± 22.74*171.22 ± 63.85*z = 1.31, P = 0.193

*Mean ± SD.

†Raven test raw scores (maximum 60 points).

‡Raw scores.