Table 1 Flexible memory elements.

Summary of the flexible NVM elements. PZTx, PbZrxTi1−xO3; P(VDF-TrFE), poly[(vinylidenefluoride)-co-trifluoroethylene]; BTO, barium titanate; PET, polyethylene terephthalate; PI, polyimide; PEN, polyethylene naphthalate.

Ferroelectric materialPZT20*PZT20*PZT52PZT52PZT53PZT30PZT52PZTBTOP(VDF-TrFE)
Flexible substrateMicaSiNi superalloy
ribbons
SiPt foilPICu foilPlasticPETAl foilOrganicPENPI
Transfer requiredNoYesNoNoYesNoNoYesNoYesNoNoNo
Pr (μC/cm2)6075401825.51520~20117.48.52
Ec (kV/cm)100400916054.9~500~251.1 V830500650
Capacitance
(F/cm2)
2.85~1.642.70.062
Dielectric constant460
@ 1 MHz
541
@ 1 kHz
80
@ 1 kHz
~1150250
@ 0.1 MHz
Switching time (ns)2000500165
Fatigue (cycles)>1010
(unbent)
>1010 (bent)
>109
(unbent)
>1010
(bent)
10715% loss
@ 107
1010102
Retention (years)>10
(unbent)
>10 (bent)
>1020% loss
@ 105 s
>7000 s
Cell size (mm2)0.00785–
0.0314
0.04840.00785–
0.0471
0.01–
0.0625
0.0080.030.01160.0250.03–
0.25
Minimum bending
radius (mm)
2.558670.5
Bending cycles @
radius
>1000
@ 5 mm
1000
@ 5 mm
500
@ 11 mm
>1000
@ 4 mm
ReferenceThis work(26)(16)(12, 13)(14)(18)(15)(17)(39)(19)(20)(21)(22)

*Single-crystalline.

†Highly oriented.