Table 2 Biogeographic island patterns (total and % of total) for the 2890 breeding populations of highly threatened amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammal species.
Island characteristicAmphibianReptileBirdMammal
Latitude
  Polar0 (0%)0 (0%)58 (5.68%)1 (0.17%)
  Temperate56 (13.8%)137 (15.7%)465 (45.5%)97 (16.4%)
  Tropical351 (86.2%)734 (84.3%)499 (48.8%)492 (83.4%)
Biome*
  Boreal forests/taiga0 (0%)0 (0%)14 (1.4%)0 (0%)
  Deserts and xeric shrublands10 (2.5%)62 (7.1%)93 (9.1%)14 (2.4%)
  Flooded grasslands and savannas2 (0.5%)7 (0.8%)2 (0.2%)4 (0.7%)
  Mangroves48 (11.8%)61 (7%)24 (2.3%)26 (4.4%)
  Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub7 (1.7%)84 (9.6%)97 (9.5%)18 (3.1%)
  Montane Grasslands and Shrublands38 (9.3%)72 (8.3%)38 (3.7%)36 (6.1%)
  Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests14 (3.4%)11 (1.3%)188 (18.4%)22 (3.7%)
  Temperate conifer forests3 (0.7%)2 (0.2%)12 (1.2%)5 (0.8%)
  Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands0 (0%)0 (0%)30 (2.9%)0 (0%)
  Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests0 (0%)24 (2.8%)12 (1.2%)3 (0.5%)
  Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests74 (18.2%)92 (10.6%)113 (11.1%)67 (11.4%)
  Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrublands0 (0%)0 (0%)7 (0.7%)15 (2.5%)
  Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests211 (51.8%)443 (50.9%)297 (29.1%)379 (64.2%)
  Tundra0 (0%)0 (0%)68 (6.7%)1 (0.2%)
Biogeographical realm*
  Afrotropic61 (15%)125 (14.4%)209 (20.5%)55 (9.3%)
  Antarctic0 (0%)0 (0%)33 (3.2%)0 (0%)
  Australasia17 (4.2%)54 (6.2%)263 (25.7%)150 (25.4%)
  Indo-Malay157 (38.6%)153 (17.6%)97 (9.5%)232 (39.3%)
  Nearctic1 (0.2%)14 (1.6%)37 (3.6%)7 (1.2%)
  Neotropic150 (36.9%)206 (23.7%)109 (10.7%)54 (9.2%)
  None0 (0%)13 (1.5%)27 (2.6%)0 (0%)
  Oceania9 (2.2%)209 (22.3%)160 (15.7%)61 (10%)
  Palearctic12 (2.9%)97 (11.1%)87 (8.5%)31 (5.3%)
Marine realm
  Arctic0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (0.2%)
  Central Indo-Pacific81 (19.9%)362 (41.6%)223 (21.8%)317 (53.7%)
  Eastern Indo-Pacific0 (0%)25 (2.9%)106 (10.4%)2 (0.3%)
  Southern Ocean0 (0%)0 (0%)58 (5.7%)0 (0%)
  Temperate Australasia12 (2.9%)1 (0.1%)160 (15.7%)16 (2.7%)
  Temperate Northern Atlantic6 (1.5%)84 (9.6%)39 (3.8%)25 (4.2%)
  Temperate Northern Pacific33 (8.1%)50 (5.7%)106 (10.4%)51 (8.6%)
  Temperate South America5 (1.2%)2 (0.2%)51 (5%)5 (0.8%)
  Temperate Southern Africa0 (0%)0 (0%)109 (10.7%)0 (0%)
  Tropical Atlantic145 (35.6%)225 (25.8%)69 (6.8%)34 (5.8%)
  Tropical Eastern Pacific3 (0.7%)3 (0.3%)35 (3.4%)3 (0.5%)
  Western Indo-Pacific122 (30%)119 (13.7%)66 (6.5%)136 (23.1%)
Island area (km2)
  Mean (SD)115,509.54 (199,904.4)66,076.1 (179,042.9)21,439.87 (88,367.3)112,081.68 (233,663.7)
  Median65,721.0119.8223.475567852.55
Income (GDP)
  High income111 (28.2%)396 (46.2%)558 (55.6%)129 (23.5%)
  Upper middle income135 (34.3%)166 (19.3%)224 (22.3%)81 (14.8%)
  Lower middle income100 (25.4%)214 (24.9%)184 (18.3%)294 (53.6%)
  Low income48 (12.2%)82 (9.6%)37 (3.7%)44 (8%)
Human inhabitants
  Absent9 (2.2%)260 (30.2%)428 (41.9%)87 (14.7%)
  Present398 (97.8%)606 (69.6%)594 (58.1%)502 (85.1%)
  Unknown0 (0%)2 (0.2%)0 (0%)1 (0.2%)
Invasive vertebrates
  Present387 (95.1%)640 (73.5%)666 (65.2%)524 (88.8%)
  Absent5 (1.2%)65 (7.5%)279 (27.3%)23 (3.9%)
  Unknown15 (3.7%)166 (19.1%)77 (7.5%)43 (7.3%)
Endemism (# of breeding islands)
  Mean (SD)1.3 (1.1)3.1 (6.6)3.5 (5.6)1.9 (2.4)
  Minimum1111
  25%1111
  50%1111
  75%1232
  Maximum13774026

*Data from Spatz et al. (77).

†Data from Spalding et al. (70).

‡Data from the International Monetary and World Bank Open Data (72, 73).