Table 1 Solid-section female limb bone summary statistics by group.

All properties derived from solid cross sections. Values are given as means (SD). Medieval humeral values were obtained from three-dimensional (3D) laser scans. All other prehistoric humeral values were obtained from silicone molds. Coefficients of variation are calculated as (SD/mean) × 100. –, variation not examined due to small sample size; CV, coefficient of variation.

Tibia
nSize-standardized JnImax/Imin
MeanRangeCV (%)MeanRangeCV (%)
Prehistoric
Neolithic3135.14 (7.26)22.92–53.4120.66342.24 (0.41)1.43–3.1318.30
Bronze Age3031.70 (6.39)19.43–46.5920.16322.12 (0.32)1.55–3.0315.09
Iron Age1733.98 (8.09)22.38–49.0823.81132.01 (0.25)1.52–2.4112.44
Medieval1131.16 (7.15)23.15–47.9222.95111.87 (0.24)1.35–2.1012.83
Modern
Running1846.41 (7.16)33.08–59.1815.42182.43 (0.35)1.88–3.1814.40
Football1141.36 (7.53)30.31–56.2318.21112.16 (0.33)1.59–2.7815.28
Rowing1635.98 (6.65)24.88–47.0018.48162.15 (0.28)1.67–2.7813.02
Controls3733.76 (6.26)23.26–45.5218.54371.97 (0.29)1.46–2.7514.72
Humerus
nLeft size–standardized JnRight size–standardized J
MeanRangeCV (%)MeanRangeCV (%)
Prehistoric
Neolithic2918.65 (4.92)11.42–27.8926.382718.82 (4.70)12.16–28.6724.97
Bronze Age2718.05 (3.37)12.52–25.5518.672818.46 (3.49)12.93–25.8218.91
Iron Age1718.69 (4.17)12.71–26.0722.311420.71 (4.01)14.53–25.3819.36
Medieval514.54 (2.26)11.56–16.75713.23 (3.97)7.32–18.25
Modern
Running1716.62 (3.67)11.01–26.5522.081617.89 (3.38)13.06–25.4918.89
Football1114.54 (2.05)10.44–17.5014.101015.02 (2.35)10.40–18.5215.65
Rowing1714.62* (3.71)12.35–27.2123.561616.83 (3.56)11.98–26.2321.15
Controls3513.27 (2.77)7.99–20.1220.873513.70 (2.90)8.79–20.8321.17

*Value given is median (SD) due to non-normal distribution (mean value, 15.75).