Table 1 Results for HMF oxidation reactions.

Reaction was carried over the 5% Pt/C catalyst (under 40-bar O2 pressure and 383 K). DFF, furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde.

#HMF concentrationSolvent
(GVL/H2O)
HMF/Pt*Time (hours)HMF conversion
(%)
DFF yield
(%)
FFCA yield
(%)
FDCA yield
(%)
10.5 wt %80:2015:1209795
25 wt %80:2020:12010093111
37.5 wt %50:5030:12010094
47.5 wt % F-D HMF50:5030:1161000
57.5 wt % F-D HMF using
HCl + ion exchange +
humin adsorption
50:5030:11610093
67.5 wt % F-D HMF using
FDCA + humin adsorption
50:5030:11610091

*Molar ratio of HMF to platinum.