Table 1 Sample of H. sapiens fossils and comparative samples.

Geologic ages used for regression analyses [in thousand years (ky)] were based on estimates in published literatures (references available upon request). Endocranial volume estimates of this study with SD of multiple estimates.

H. sapiens fossils
  Geologic age group 1
    Jebel Irhoud 1315 ky1.375 ± 6 ml
    Jebel Irhoud 2315 ky1.467 ± 6 ml
    Omo 2195 ky1.491 ± 4 ml
  Geologic age group 2
    L.H. 18120 ky1.237 ± 5 ml
    Skhul V115 ky1.363 ± 1 ml
    Qafzeh 6115 ky1.524 ± 8 ml
    Qafzeh 9115 ky1.497 ± 5 ml
  Geologic age group 3
    Hofmeyr36 ky1.498 ± 13 ml
    Mladeč 135 ky1.606 ml
    Cro-Magnon 131 ky1.574 ± 1 ml
    Cro-Magnon 331 ky1.813 ± 32 ml
    Dolní Věstonice 1630 ky1.542 ± 4 ml
    Dolní Věstonice 1329 ky1.590 ± 2 ml
    Dolní Věstonice 1429 ky1.663 ± 5 ml
    Dolní Věstonice 1529 ky1.385 ± 3 ml
    Abri Pataud27 ky1.323 ml
    Ohalo II H222 ky1.475 ± 1 ml
    Oberkassel D99914 ky1.330 ± 2 ml
    Oberkassel D99813 ky1.492 ml
    Combe Capelle8 ky1.457 ± 2 ml
Present-day humans
  89 cranially diverse
present-day humans
Mean ± SD: 1328 ± 164 ml
Range: 1082–1832 ml
Neandertals
  Gibraltar 175 ky1213 ± 4 ml
  La Ferrassie 170 ky1643 ± 5 ml
  Guattari55 ky1421 ± 3 ml
  Amud 153 ky1747 ± 16 ml
  La Chapelle-aux-Saints52 ky1490 ± 3 ml
  Feldhofer 140 ky1261 ± 28 ml
  Spy I40 ky1287 ± 9 ml
  Spy II40 ky1531 ± 7 ml
H. heidelbergensis sensu lato
  Kabwe600–250 ky?1249 ml
  Petralona400–150 ky?1162 ± 2 ml
H. erectus sensu lato
  KNM-ER 37331780 ky878 ± 2 ml
  KNM-ER 38331570 ky838 ± 1 ml
  KNM-WT 150001535 ky850 ± 4 ml
  OH 91470 ky1013 ± 4 ml
  Sangiran 21500 ky793 ± 4 ml
  Sambungmacan 3200 ky902 ± 4 ml
  Ngandong 14200 ky1127 ± 2 ml
  Ngawi200 ky952 ± 1 ml